Perspectives On Thinking And Reasoning

Book description

This collection of essays focuses on three reasoning problems devised by Peter Wason - the selection task, the 2-4-6 task, and the THOG problem - which have had a considerable influence since their invention.; The reasons why people make so many errors in these seemingly simple tasks are still not fully understood. A variety of different theoretical perspectives have been used in trying to explain performance. These include the mental models approach, the pragmatic reasoning approach, and the mental logic approach. This book contains chapters which discuss all these theories. Other chapters review the literature or offer alternative theoretical perspectives. A final chapter by Peter Wason describes how he came to create the tasks discussed.

Table of contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents
  5. Contributors
  6. 1. Creating a Psychology of Reasoning: The Contribution of Peter Wason
    1. Origins of the psychology of reasoning and the “British tradition”
    2. The Wason 2-4-6 problem
    3. The Wason selection task
    4. The THOG problem
    5. Overview of this book
    6. Acknowledgements
    7. References
  7. 2. The Effects of Rule Clarification, Decision Justification, and Selection Instruction on Wason’s Abstract Selection Task
    1. Introduction
    2. Rule clarification
    3. Decision justification
    4. Selection instruction
    5. The Platt and Griggs experiments
    6. Synthesis
    7. Acknowledgements
    8. References
  8. 3. Content Effects in Wason’s Selection Task
    1. Content effects with syllogisms
    2. Wason’s selection task
    3. Differences among thematic problems
    4. Differences among arbitrary problems
    5. Processing considerations
    6. Final comments
    7. Note
    8. References
  9. 4. Pragmatic Reasoning about Human Voluntary Action: Evidence from Wason’s Selection Task
    1. Introduction
    2. Pragmatic schemas for permission and obligation
    3. Facilitation with abstract deontic rules
    4. Perspective effects in deontic reasoning
    5. Conclusion
    6. Notes
    7. Acknowledgements
    8. References
  10. 5. Deontic Reasoning
    1. Introduction: Content effects and the deontic context in reasoning
    2. Recent experiments: Subjective utility and social perspective
    3. Schemas and models in the explanation of deontic reasoning
    4. Deontic reasoning and decision making
    5. Conclusions
    6. References
  11. 6. Inference and Mental Models
    1. Introduction
    2. The theory of mental models
    3. Models and sentential reasoning
    4. When “or” means “and”: An unexpected prediction
    5. Some apparent difficulties for the theory of conditionals
    6. The phenomena of the selection task
    7. How the model theory explains the selection task
    8. Conclusions
    9. Acknowledgements
    10. References
  12. 7. Relevance and Reasoning
    1. Theoretical background
    2. Relevance in the Wason selection task
    3. Conclusions
    4. Note
    5. References
  13. 8. The Abstract Selection Task: Thesis, Antithesis, and Synthesis
    1. Thesis and antithesis
    2. Task variants
    3. Synthesis
    4. Conclusion
    5. Acknowledgements
    6. References
  14. 9. Finding Logic in Human Reasoning Requires Looking in the Right Places
    1. Wason’s selection task
    2. Mental-logic theory
    3. Some empirical support for mental-logic theory
    4. Closing comments
    5. Notes
    6. Acknowledgements
    7. References
  15. 10. Hypothesis Testing
    1. Wason’s 2-4-6 task
    2. Counterfactual reasoning
    3. Increasing ecological validity
    4. Conclusions
    5. Notes
    6. Acknowledgements
    7. References
  16. 11. Scientific Reasoning
    1. Traditions in the cognitive psychology of science
    2. The Wason tradition in scientific reasoning
    3. Conclusions
    4. Notes
    5. Acknowledgements
    6. References
  17. 12. The THOG Problem and its Implications for Human Reasoning
    1. The origin and nature of the problem
    2. Early research on the problem
    3. The effects of realism
    4. The source of intuitive errors
    5. Confusion theory
    6. Individual differences
    7. Theoretical considerations
    8. Concluding comments
    9. Note
    10. Acknowledgements
    11. References
  18. 13. Creativity in Research
    1. Background
    2. Creativity
    3. Fakes and flukes
    4. Research strategy
    5. Methodology
    6. Reporting research
    7. A study in prejudice
    8. The selection task as a picture of creative effort
    9. Acknowledgements
    10. References
  19. Author Index
  20. Subject Index

Product information

  • Title: Perspectives On Thinking And Reasoning
  • Author(s): Stephen Newstead, Jonathan St.B.T. Evans
  • Release date: June 2013
  • Publisher(s): Routledge
  • ISBN: 9781134834334