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Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids by Johannes Fink

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Chapter 1. Drilling Muds
According to the American Petroleum Institute (API), a drilling fluid is defined as a circulating fluid, used in rotary drilling to perform any or all of the various functions required in drilling operations.
Drilling fluids are mixtures of natural and synthetic chemical compounds used to cool and lubricate the drill bit, clean the hole bottom, carry cuttings to the surface, control formation pressures, and improve the function of the drill string and tools in the hole. They are divided into two general types: waterbased drilling muds (WBMs) and oil-based drilling muds (OBMs). The type of fluid base that is used depends on drilling and formation needs, as well as the requirements for disposing of the fluid after it is no ...

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