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Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids by Johannes Fink

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Chapter 3. Clay Stabilization
Problems caused by shales in petroleum activities are not new. At the beginning of the 1950s, many soil mechanics experts were interested in the swelling of clays, which are important for maintaining wellbore stability during drilling, especially in water-sensitive shale and clay formations.
The rocks within these types of formations absorb the fluid used in drilling, which causes them and may lead to a wellbore collapse. The swelling of clays and the problems that may so arise have been reviewed in the literature (Durand et al., 1995a and Durand et al., 1995b; Van Oort, 1997; Zhou et al., 1995). Various additives for clay stabilization are shown in Table 3.1.
Table 3.1 Clay Stabilizers
BDBiodegradable
LTLow toxicity ...

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