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Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids by Johannes Fink

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Chapter 7. Scale Inhibitors
In certain operations in petroleum industries, such as production, stimulation, and transport, there is a risk of scale deposition. This can occur when a solution becomes supersaturated, which occurs mostly if the temperature changes in the course of injection operations.
Scale is also formed, if two chemicals that will form a precipitate are brought together, e.g., if a hydrogen fluoride solution meets calcium ions. From a thermodynamic perspective, there is a stable region, a metastable region, and an unstable region, separated by the binodal curve and the spinodale curve, respectively.
Scales may consist of calcium carbonate, barium sulfate, gypsum, strontium sulfate, iron carbonate, iron oxides, iron sulfides, and ...

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