Chapter 11. Transport
Pipelines have a long history. In ancient times, they were used for water transport, examples of which are still visible at archeological sites. However, it is clear that these early constructions could not withstand high pressures. The advent of gas pipelines started between 1820 and 1830 with the distribution of town gas. Nowadays, pipelines are indispensable to the petroleum industries for the transport of various materials, including natural gas, crude oil of various types, and refined products.