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Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids by Johannes Fink

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Chapter 11. Transport
Pipelines have a long history. In ancient times, they were used for water transport, examples of which are still visible at archeological sites. However, it is clear that these early constructions could not withstand high pressures. The advent of gas pipelines started between 1820 and 1830 with the distribution of town gas. Nowadays, pipelines are indispensable to the petroleum industries for the transport of various materials, including natural gas, crude oil of various types, and refined products.
The construction and operation of pipelines are described in the literature and are not a subject of oil field chemicals (Bourgoyne, 1986; Krass et al., 1979; McAllister, 2009; Mohitpour et al., 2000). In this chapter, the additives ...

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