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Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids by Johannes Fink

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Chapter 12. Drag Reducers
This chapter deals almost exclusively with drag reduction in pipelines for liquid transportation. Pipeline flow improvers, or drag-reducing agents (DRAs), have been utilized in the petroleum industry for many years (Almond, 1989). They are important in oil drilling applications and the maintenance of pumping equipment in pipelines.
The first application of drag reducers was the use of guar in oil well fracturing, which is now a routine practice. One of the first large-scale pipeline applications was to increase the throughput of crude oil on the Trans-Alaskan pipeline in 1979 through the successful use of oil-soluble polymers.
Since then, DRA use has increased in refined products pipelines to offset power costs. The DRA ...

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