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Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids by Johannes Fink

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Chapter 17. Fracturing Fluids
Hydraulic fracturing is a technique used to stimulate the productivity of a well. A hydraulic fracture is a superimposed structure that remains undisturbed outside the fracture, so the effective permeability of a reservoir remains unchanged by this process. The increased wellbore radius increases its productivity, because a large contact surface between the well and the reservoir is created.

Stresses and Fractures

Hydraulic fracturing is one of the newer techniques in petroleum sciences, not being used for more than approximately 50 years. The classic treatment (Hubbert and Willis, 1957) of hydraulic fracturing states that the fractures are approximately perpendicular to the axis of the least stress. For most deep reservoirs, ...

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