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Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids by Johannes Fink

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Chapter 19. Oil Spill Treating Agents
The most devastating oil spills occur in coastal regions, so most of this chapter is devoted to this topic, and one section is devoted to subsurface and soil remediation jobs.
Chemical dispersants can be used to reduce the interfacial tension (IFT) of floating oil slicks, so that the oils disperse more rapidly into the water column and thus pose less of a threat to shorelines, birds, and marine mammals. The action of oil spill treating agents goes beyond simply dispersing the spilled oil, however.
Oil spill treating agents can be divided into four classes: solidifiers, demulsifying agents, surface-washing agents, and dispersants, which make up the majority. Oil spill treating agents can also be referred to as: ...

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