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Petroleum Production Systems, Second Edition by A. Daniel Hill, Christine Ehlig-Economides, Ding Zhu, Michael J. Economides

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Chapter 19. Sand Management

19.1. Introduction

Although formation solids are not always sand, in the petroleum industry, the production of any solids from a well is generally called sand production. Often not anticipated, produced solids can accumulate in the well or in subsea or surface flow lines, destroy a downhole pump, or erode various well hardware including slotted liners or screens, gas-lift valves, the surface choke, or any bends in surface pipe.

The cost to remediate consequences of sand production can vary depending on the difficulty to remove accumulated sand or replace worn equipment or eroded hardware. In some cases these costs can be factored in as normal operating expenses, and sand production may be tolerated as part of normal ...

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