Planning Sustainable Transport

Book Description

Transport choices must be transformed if we are to cope with sustainability and climate change, but this can only be done if we understand how complex transport systems work. Straightforward choices are never made between one transport mode and another; door-to-door movements of both people and freight use combinations of different modes of transport.

This book offers a cross-disciplinary overview of transport systems and the ways in which they interact with urban and regional planning decisions and environmental issues. It offers a thoughtful critique of existing methodology and policy, raising issues, providing facts, explaining linkages and, particularly, stimulating debate. The book methodically explores the definitions, trends, problems, objectives and policies of transport planning. In particular the author looks at land use as a major determinant of the nature and extent of the demand for transport, concluding that the management of land use has to be a key element of any sustainable transport policy.

Planning Sustainable Transport will be essential reading for today’s transport specialists, planners and property developers. It will also be useful to postgraduate students in planning and related disciplines.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. List of figures
  7. 1. The definitions: sustainability
    1. The Brundtland Report
    2. The Rio Conference
    3. The Kyoto Protocol
    4. The shifting balance between government and business in delivering policy
    5. Conclusion
    6. Notes
  8. 2. The definitions: transport
    1. The transport system
    2. Transport ‘modes’
    3. Inter-modal and multi-modal movement
    4. Transport rhythms
    5. Notes
  9. 3. The definitions: planning
    1. Town and country planning
    2. The link between land-use planning and transport
    3. The link between transport and land-use planning
    4. The changing structure of urban areas
    5. The planning process
    6. Planning as management: steering by iterative correction
    7. Notes
  10. 4. The trends: travel and haulage
    1. Retail distribution
    2. Energy distribution
    3. Notes
  11. 5. Fuel consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG)
    1. Sustainable objectives
    2. GHG and CO2 emissions
    3. Fuel consumption and CO2-e emissions: cars
    4. Fuel consumption and CO2-e emissions: road freight
    5. Fuel consumption and CO2-e emissions:road passenger transport
    6. Fuel consumption and CO2-e emissions: rail
    7. Fuel consumption and CO2-e emissions: air
    8. Rates per vehicle-, person- and tonne-kilometre
    9. Summary
    10. Notes
  12. 6. Location and land use
    1. The quandary of the interactions between transport and land use
    2. The definitions of accessibility and mobility
    3. Isochrones
    4. Changing patterns of land use and transport
    5. Urban development
    6. The modern definition of accessibility
    7. Notes
  13. 7. The problems: congestion
    1. Gridlock: the political imperative
    2. The nature of traffic flow and congestion
    3. Simple flow theory
    4. Definitions and measures of speed
    5. The hybrid flow–speed/speed–flow curve
    6. The instability of maximum flows
    7. Lack of capacity and congestion
      1. Rural road capacity
      2. Urban road capacity
      3. Junction capacity
      4. The diverge
      5. The merge
      6. The weave
      7. Crossing movements
    8. Drivers’ decision times
      1. Gap acceptance
      2. The supply of gaps
    9. Tackling congestion
      1. Route changes
      2. Time changes
      3. Mode changes
      4. Destination changes
      5. Enduring the delay
    10. The sting in the tail
    11. Appendix 7.1
      1. Moving Car Observer
    12. Notes
  14. 8. The problems: interchanging and trans-shipment
    1. Container ports: a demonstration case
    2. Inter-modal freight: the generalisation
    3. Inter-modal freight: the conclusions
    4. Multi-modal passenger transport
    5. Conclusions
    6. Note
  15. 9. The problems: the space budget
    1. Notes
  16. 10. Transport costs
    1. Car costs
    2. General transport costs
    3. Conclusions
    4. Notes
  17. 11. Sensing success and failure
    1. Objectives
    2. Criteria
    3. Optimisation and sufficing
    4. Systems and conditions
    5. Notes
  18. 12. Managing the environmental impacts
    1. The Eddington Report
    2. The Stern Review
    3. The ‘Polluter Pays’ principle
      1. Towards a Sustainable Transport System
      2. Delivering a Sustainable Transport System
    4. The Haddington case study
    5. Notes
  19. 13. Mobility and accessibility
    1. The definitions
    2. Shifts in the government’s role
    3. The change in scale and time frame of transport planning
      1. Planning Policy Guidance Note 13: Transport (PPG13)
    4. The emphasis upon accessibility planning
    5. The theory of accessibility
    6. The effects of density
    7. Notes
  20. 14. Controlling costs
    1. Accounting for intangibles
    2. Accounting for expenditure in real money
    3. Marginal and average cost theory
    4. Monitoring variable costs
    5. Redundancy
    6. Subsidy
    7. Notes
  21. 15. Supporting the economy
    1. Transport and economic activity
    2. Policy objectives
    3. Interrelating transport, land use and economic activity
      1. Guidance on the Methodology for Multi-Modal Studies (GOMMMS)
    4. The General Urban Model revisited
    5. Notes
  22. 16. Road vehicle design
    1. Construction and use regulations: the legalities
    2. Managing pollution
    3. Notes
  23. 17. Public transport
    1. The definition
    2. Monopoly
    3. Regulation of British public transport
      1. Hackney carriages and taxis
      2. Horse-drawn buses
      3. Horse trams
      4. Powered trams
      5. Motor buses
      6. The railways
    4. The impact of the private car
    5. The Transport Act (1968)
    6. Transport supplementary grants
    7. The Nottingham Zone and Collar experiment
    8. After the Nottingham experiment
    9. Bus deregulation and privatisation
    10. The Buses White Paper
    11. Bus deregulation and privatisation: the outcome
    12. Current bus policy: A Green Light for Better Buses
    13. Regulating the railways
    14. Rail privatisation
    15. Present and future uses of public transport
    16. Acquisition and ownership
    17. Car use
    18. The desirable objectives
    19. Notes
  24. 18. Tolls, taxes and tariffs: fares, fines and fees
    1. The paradigm shift
    2. Prices
    3. Tariffs
    4. Tolls
    5. Taxes
    6. Fees
    7. Fines
    8. Policy levers
    9. Road user charging
    10. Notes
  25. 19. Transport demand prediction
    1. Measuring the existing movements
    2. Enlarged origin and destination matrices
    3. Estimating traffic flow
    4. The advent of household surveys and synthetic O+D matrices
    5. The three-stage land-use and transport prediction package
    6. The fourth stage: modal split
    7. Scheme assessment
    8. The intrusion of transport economics
    9. Lost in multi-modal integration
    10. The multi-modal studies
    11. Fit for purpose?
    12. Notes
  26. 20. The need for a new methodology to estimate travel demand
    1. The structure of value-for-money assessments
    2. SALUTE: Simple Assessment of Land Use,Transport and the Environment
      1. Development
      2. The database: the system ‘fabric’
      3. The database: the system performance
      4. The database: transport demand
    3. Land-use dispositions
    4. Transport landscapes
    5. Notes
  27. 21. Planning sustainable transport: the agenda
    1. The objective
    2. The planning methodology
    3. The state of the transport system
    4. Time budgets
    5. The prime objectives
    6. Policies
    7. Programmes
    8. The predictive methodology
    9. Actions
    10. Urban structure
    11. Postscript
    12. Notes
  28. Bibliography
  29. Index

Product Information

  • Title: Planning Sustainable Transport
  • Author(s): Barry Hutton
  • Release date: June 2013
  • Publisher(s): Routledge
  • ISBN: 9781136754159