Chapter V

Quantitative Hazard Analysis


Event tree analysis (ETA) and fault tree analysis (FTA) cover a major part in plant quantitative analysis. In ETA, major consequences can be quantified from an accidental event; in FTA, cause of a top event is quantified. For large complex systems, an intelligent way to handle them is the call of the day. Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) offers various independent protection layers, both in the form of prevention as well as mitigation means, and it also provides means for safety integrity level calculation. Selection of independent protection layers (IPLs) both as per International Society of Automation and International Electrotechnical Commission have been treated as each requires a number of ...

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