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Polymer Science and Technology, Third Edition by Joel R. Fried

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Chapter 7. Additives, Blends, Block Copolymers, and Composites

Typically, commercial plastics are mixtures of one or more polymers and a variety of additives such as plasticizers, flame retardants, processing lubricants, stabilizers, and fillers. The exact formulation will depend upon the specific application or processing requirement. For example, poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is a thermally unstable polymer (see Section 6.1.1) having high modulus, or stiffness, typical of other glassy polymers at room temperature. In order to obtain a flexible-grade resin of PVC for use as packaging film or for wire insulation, the polymer must be blended with a plasticizer to reduce its Tg and with a small amount of an additive to improve its thermal stability ...

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