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Ponds, Lagoons, and Wetlands for Wastewater Management

Book Description

Engineered ponds, lagoons, and wetlands have been used for centuries to treat and manage wastewater, and they are still widely used today. They require very few external energy and material inputs and provide ecosystem services for communities. This book presents a compilation of guidelines to design ponds, lagoons, and wetlands for the treatment and management of domestic or municipal wastewater, agricultural wastewater, and industrial waste. Sufficient detail and clarity is provided for practitioners to use this book as a reference, and for senior year or graduate college students to develop an understanding of the design concepts for these engineered natural treatment systems.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title Page
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Contents
  6. LIST OF FIGURES
  7. LIST OF TABLES
  8. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  9. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
    1. 1.1 Wastewater Management and Sustainability
      1. 1.1.1 Natural Treatment Systems and the New Paradigm for Wastewater Management
      2. 1.1.2 Natural Treatment Systems and Sustainable Development
      3. 1.1.3 Basics About Wastewater
      4. 1.1.4 Global Use of Natural Wastewater Treatment Systems
    2. 1.2 Purpose and Scope of This Book
  10. CHAPTER 2 BIOLOGY OF PONDS, LAGOONS, AND WETLANDS
    1. Topics Addressed in This Chapter
    2. 2.1 Introduction
    3. 2.2 Classification of Organisms by Energy and Carbon Source
    4. 2.3 Biodiversity in Ponds, Lagoons, and Wetlands
      1. 2.3.1 Prokaryotes
      2. 2.3.2 Viruses
      3. 2.3.3 Plants, Algae, and Cyanobacteria
      4. 2.3.4 Protozoa
      5. 2.3.5 Macroinvertebrates
      6. 2.3.6 Fungi
      7. 2.3.7 Larger Organisms
    5. 2.4 Biological Transformations of Organic Matter
    6. 2.5 The Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur Cycles
      1. 2.5.1 Carbon Cycle
      2. 2.5.2 Nitrogen Cycle
      3. 2.5.3 Phosphorus Cycle
      4. 2.5.4 Sulfur Cycle
    7. 2.6. Pathogenic and Nuisance Organisms
      1. 2.6.1 Microorganisms Associated with Disease
      2. 2.6.2 Nuisance Organisms
  11. CHAPTER 3 SITE SELECTION AND PHYSICAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
    1. Topics Addressed in this Chapter
    2. 3.1. Site Selection
    3. 3.2. Lining Materials
    4. 3.3. Earthwork, Slopes, Berms, and Embankments
    5. 3.4. Hydraulic Design of Wastewater Systems
      1. 3.4.1 Inlets and Outlets
      2. 3.4.2 Flow Control Structures
    6. 3.5. Overview
    7. 3.6. Design Approaches
      1. 3.6.1 Loading Rate Approach
      2. 3.6.2 Reactor Theory Approach
  12. CHAPTER 4 WASTEWATER TREATMENT PONDS AND LAGOONS
    1. 4.1. Introduction
    2. 4.2. Pretreatment
      1. 4.2.1 Screening
      2. 4.2.2 Grit Removal
    3. 4.3. Anaerobic Ponds
    4. 4.4. Facultative Ponds
    5. 4.5. Mechanically Aerated Ponds
    6. 4.6. Maturation and Polishing Ponds
      1. 4.6.1 Removal of Pathogens and Fecal Indicator Organisms
      2. 4.6.2 Ammonia and Total Nitrogen Removal
      3. 4.6.3 Phosphorus Removal
    7. 4.7. Floating Macrophyte Ponds (Wetlands)
  13. CHAPTER 5 CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS
    1. Topics Addressed in this Chapter
    2. 5.1. Introduction
    3. 5.2. Horizontal Subsurface Flow Wetlands
      1. 5.2.1 Loading Rate Approach
      2. 5.2.2 Reactor Theory Approach
    4. 5.3. Vertical Flow Wetlands
      1. 5.3.1 Loading Rate Approach
      2. 5.3.2 Reactor Theory Approach
    5. 5.4. Free Water Surface Flow Wetlands
      1. 5.4.1 Hydraulic Design
      2. 5.4.2 Loading Rate Approach
      3. 5.4.3 Reactor Theory Approach
    6. 5.5. Selection of Plant Species
    7. 5.6. Substrate
      1. 5.6.1 Horizontal Subsurface Flow Wetlands
      2. 5.6.2 Vertical Flow Wetlands
      3. 5.6.3 Free Water Surface Flow Wetlands
  14. CHAPTER 6 INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER
    1. Topics Addressed in this Chapter
    2. 6.1. Introduction
    3. 6.2. Animal Waste
    4. 6.3. Food Processing Waste
    5. 6.4. Coal Combustion Residuals
    6. 6.5. Pulp and Paper Mill Waste
  15. CHAPTER 7 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
    1. Topics Addressed in this Chapter
    2. 7.1. Start-up
    3. 7.2. Sludge Management
    4. 7.3. Routine Monitoring
    5. 7.4. Visual and Sensory Cues
  16. REFERENCES
  17. AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY
  18. INDEX