After reading this chapter, the reader will be able to:
1. Understand the most common causes of failure for wastewater treatment ponds, lagoons, and wetlands.
2. Develop an operation and maintenance plan for wastewater treatment system with ponds, lagoons, and/or wetlands.
The start-up period refers to the length of time during which the communities of microorganisms and macrophytes are becoming established and the treatment efficiency is not yet at its full potential. For free water surface flow constructed wetlands, the start-up period can take several years for the establishment of emergent macrophytes. The start-up period for ...