This appendix provides a very basic introduction to linear algebra concepts. Some of these concepts are intentionally presented here in a somewhat simplified (not as general as it could be) form. Our goal is not to teach all intricacies of this very important field in mathematics, but to enable readers to understand the linear algebra notation and applications described in this book.

Consider a very simple equation:

In this equation, *x* is a variable, and *a* and *b* are input data. To find the value of the variable *x*, we would simply write

Equivalently, we could have written

Consider now a simple system of two linear equations:

The variables in this system are and , and the input data consist of the coefficients 3, 8, 10, and the constants to the right of the equal sign, 46 and . The way we would normally solve this system ...

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