Every time you execute the barman backup command for a given server, you take a full base backup (a more generic term for this is periodical full backup). Once completed, this backup can be used as a base for any recovery operation from the start time of the backup to the last available WAL file for that server (provided there is continuity among all the WAL segments).
As mentioned earlier, by scheduling daily or weekly automated backups, you end up having several periodic backups for a server. In Barman's jargon, this is known as the backup catalog and it is one of our favorite features of this tool.
At any time, you can get a list of available backups for a given server through the list-backup command:
[root@malcolm ~]# barman ...