where *f*^{(n–1)}(0¯) is the initial value of the (*n* – 1)th derivative of *f*(*t*) at *t* = 0¯ If any *f*(*t*) is continuous at *t* = *0*, then *f*(0^{+}) = *f*(0¯). However, if discontinuity exists at *t* = 0, then *f*(0¯) must be used.

provided *F*_{1}(*S*) is rational function, where *F*_{1}(*S*) = *A*_{1}(*S*)/*B*_{1}(*S*) and has only ...

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