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Practical Digital Photomicrography: Photography Through the Microscope for the Life Sciences by Brian Matsumoto

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2.7. Role of Condenser and Field Diaphragms

Proper illumination of the microscope requires that the condenser concentrate the illuminant's light on the specimen. The first task is to establish the optical plane of the specimen by viewing it through the eyepiece and adjusting the stage so the specimen appears sharp. First, you are focused on the specimen plane. Next, by raising and lowering the condenser, you can see the light source and focus its image onto the specimen plane. When the image of the illuminant is superimposed on the specimen, its light is maximally concentrated on the subject.

In the 1800s, the flame of an oil lamp served as the indoor light source. The lamp was placed in front of the microscope, and a substage mirror was tilted ...

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