Appendix 1

Useful relationships

(i) Series parallel equivalents

The following (frequency-dependent) transformation is useful where a measurement system gives the parallel components of an impedance but the series equivalent is required, or vice versa.


Figure A1.1

(ii) Delta/star equivalence

As in the case of (i) above, these conversions are frequency dependent.


Figure A1.2 The star-delta transformation (also works for impedances, enabling negative values of resistance effectively to be produced)

(iii) Maximum power theorem

Note: Where ...

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