(i) Series parallel equivalents
The following (frequency-dependent) transformation is useful where a measurement system gives the parallel components of an impedance but the series equivalent is required, or vice versa.
(ii) Delta/star equivalence
As in the case of (i) above, these conversions are frequency dependent.
Figure A1.2 The star-delta transformation (also works for impedances, enabling negative values of resistance effectively to be produced)
(iii) Maximum power theorem
Note: Where ...