In this chapter, arbitrary signals are expressed as linear combinations of component signals. Suitable sets of component signals are identified, and the *one-sided cosine-frequency* approach is extended to represent arbitrary periodic signals as the sum of orthogonal components. This discussion finally leads to the complex Fourier series as a generalized frequency-domain representation of periodic functions.

This chapter is divided into three parts. Part One introduces the notion of orthogonal signals and explores the process of identifying the orthogonal components of a signal. There are many possible sets of orthogonal component signals, but in Part Two the use ...

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