^: Adding a caret to any commit name (a commit ID, branch name, or tag) tells Git to use that commit, minus one. You can add multiple carets: HEAD^^ means HEAD minus two, and so on.
~#: The tilde followed by a number is used with a commit name (a commit ID, branch name, or tag) to specify the commit located at that point minus the number: HEAD~2 means two commits before HEAD, and so on.
amend: Applies the commit that is being made to the previous commit to amend it.
bare repository: A repository without a working tree. Generally used for repositories that are meant to be pushed and pulled to and from.
blame: An annotated view of a file (or portion of a file) that shows what commit a change was made in, when that ...