## 8 Polar Coordinates

**Chapter Outline**

**8.1** The Polar Coordinate System

**8.2** Graphs of Polar Equations

**8.3** Conic Sections in Polar Coordinates

**8.4** Parametric Equations

Chapter 8 Review Exercises

**8.1 The Polar Coordinate System**

**Introduction** So far we have used the rectangular coordinate system to specify a point *P* in the plane. We can regard this system as a grid of horizontal and vertical lines. The coordinates (*a, b*) of a point *P* are determined by the intersection of two lines: one line *x* = *a* is perpendicular to the horizontal reference line ...