A1: Answer: b

The major advantage of the functional organization over those listed is that the organization is quite stable. Project organizations are created and disbanded as the need for them arises. Functional organizations are also able to have high level of expertise in specific skill areas. These organizations also resist change.

A2: Answer: d

Managing is primarily concerned with ''consistently producing key results expected by stakeholders,'' while leading involves:

  • Establishing direction—developing both a vision of the future and strategies for producing the changes needed to achieve that vision.

  • Aligning people—communicating the vision by words and deeds to all those whose cooperation may be needed to achieve the vision. ...

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