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Using instruments to quantify colour

Abstract:

Colour measuring instruments can provide only reflectance or transmission values of objects, which are insufficient to describe a colour. As our eyes have three types of colour-sensitive cones, the attributes of colour are considered to be three-dimensional. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) specified illuminants as standardised light sources and defined the standard observer response functions to specify colours numerically by three numbers, called tristimulus values. Two chromaticity coordinates derived from those values are plotted in a two-dimensional diagram called chromaticity, a diagram which encompasses all real objects and spectral colours inside an area resembling a horseshoe. ...

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