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Principles of Hydraulic Systems Design, Second Edition by Peter Chapple

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CHAPTER 8

FLOW PROCESSES IN HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS

8.1  INTRODUCTION

This chapter is concerned with the analytical methods for the evaluation of:

  • Pressure losses in pipes and small clearances.
  • Pressure/flow characteristics of restrictors.
  • Fluid momentum forces on valves.

8.2  FLUID PROPERTIES

Fluid density, ρ, is the mass per unit volume and has units of kg m−3. The variation in the density of most hydraulic fluids with temperature is relatively small for the normal operating temperature usually encountered in hydraulic systems. For hydraulic oils the value can be taken as 870 kg/m3.

Fluid viscosity

The viscosity of the fluid can be referred to by:

  1. Dynamic viscosity, µ, for which the units are Ns m−2. The technical literature often uses other ...

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