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Process Control: Modeling, Design, and Simulation by B. Wayne Bequette

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2.8. Summary

We have focused primarily on the development of ordinary differential equation models that describe the dynamic behavior of processes where perfect mixing can be assumed. The models have the form

where the states, inputs, outputs, and parameters are x, u, y, and p, respectively.

States appear in the “accumulation” (derivative with respect to time) term, inputs can be either manipulated or disturbance variables, outputs are often a subset of the states, and parameters are often physical intensive variables, such as density or kinetic rate parameters. The modeling equations are based on material (component or total) and energy balances. ...

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