W
atch an
y
conversat
i
on and the observer
q
u
i
ckl
y
w
i
ll see b
y
the
g
rou
p
s bod
y
p
os
i
t
i
on
i
n
g
whether the
y
are in a state of rapport or conflict
.
Depending on the individual, establishing rapport can be accomplished quickly or may take som
e
t
i
me to ach
i
eve. Peo
p
le are much more l
i
kel
y
to establ
i
sh ra
pp
ort when the
y
do not feel threatened o
r
uncertain about another’s intentions. If the investigator is perceived as attempting to be unnaturally
f
riendly, this likely will foster suspicion and resistance in the subject. Their uncertainty and distrust o
f
the overl
y
fr
i
endl
y
i
nvest
ig
ator w
i
ll result
i
n less
i
nformat
i
on be
i
n
g
obta
i
ned
.
I
NTERVIEW AND INTERR
O
GATI
O
N
I
t
i
s
i
m
p
ortant that the
i
nvest
ig
ator understand the d
i
st
i
nct
i
on between the
p
rocess of
i
nterv
i
ew and
i
nterrogation. The dynamics of the two are exactly opposite and the investigator must clearly establish
i
n his mind what he is attempting before talking with a subject
.
An
i
nterv
i
ew
i
s a nonaccusator
y
fact
g
ather
i
n
g
or behav
i
oral
p
rovok
i
n
g
conversat
i
on to deter
-
m
ine facts, sequence of events, alibis, or to confirm information with a victim, witness, or suspect
.
T
he interviewer allows the subject to do the majority of the talking by asking open-ended questions
to encoura
g
e a narrat
i
ve res
p
onse. In the latter sta
g
es of the
i
nterv
i
ew the
i
nvest
ig
ator ma
y
use
c
losed-ended questions to clearly establish or confirm details. Because of the dynamics of interview
-
i
ng the investigator should not expect a confession, but only for the subject to confirm or deny
i
nf
o
rm
atio
n
.
An interrogation is conducted when a suspect is believed to be guilty. It is a search for the trut
h
to obtain admissions or confession, which independently confirm the investigative findings. The admis
-
s
i
ons or confess
i
on should su
pp
ort the deta
i
ls of the
i
nvest
ig
at
i
on and establ
i
sh the
i
nd
i
v
i
dual’s
p
ar
-
ticipation in the act. In an interrogation the interrogator seeks information that establishes the suspect’
s
c
ulpability and mental state, which will provide sufficient details to prosecute, discipline, or discharge
t
h
e
i
n
di
v
idua
l
.
B
eha
vi
o
r
I
nterv
i
ew
i
n
g
and
i
nterro
g
at
i
on
i
s essent
i
all
y
a conversat
i
on between two
p
eo
p
le des
i
r
i
n
g
i
nformat
i
on.
Each is reacting to the other’s questions and moods. An important aspect of interview and interroga-
tion is the careful observation of the subject’s behavior and then reacting to it. Observing the individ-
ual’s behav
i
or as he
i
s
q
uest
i
oned often
p
rov
i
des the
i
nterv
i
ewer/
i
nterro
g
ator clues to conceale
d
i
nformation, plus it can assist in determining the person’s candidness
.
Carefull
y
listenin
g
to the individual’s word choice, s
p
eed of deliver
y
, tonal
q
ualities, and
p
ause
s
m
a
y
p
rov
i
de the astute
i
nterv
i
ewer w
i
th clues where to develo
p
i
nformat
i
on. In add
i
t
i
on, observ
i
n
g
th
e
p
hysical behavior, attitudes, and behavioral changes during the course of questioning may also assist
the interviewer in knowin
g
where to develo
p
additional information
.
For behav
i
oral clues to be relevant
i
n detect
i
n
g
dece
p
t
i
on the
y
must be on t
i
me and cons
i
stent.
T
here is no single behavior either verbal or physical that always indicates an individual is being truth
-
f
ul or attem
p
tin
g
to deceive. Instead, the interviewer must observe behavior and its timeliness and
c
ons
i
stenc
y
to determ
i
ne
i
ts usefulness for detect
i
n
g
dece
p
t
i
on
.
Ch
apter 10 An Overview of t
h
e Interview an
d
Interro
g
ation Process 11
5

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