v
Contents
Acknowledgments .................................................................................................ix
Introduction to Process Dependency ..................................................................xi
Author ................................................................................................................. xxxi
1. The Process, the Product, and Its Ultimate Life Span ............................1
The Process .......................................................................................................4
The Product.......................................................................................................7
The Knobs ....................................................................................................... 10
Product Life Span........................................................................................... 14
Types of Process Deciencies ....................................................................... 17
Summary .........................................................................................................20
2. Fitness-for-Use Testing ................................................................................23
Finding the Critical Properties of Process-Dependent Products ............27
FFU Tests ......................................................................................................... 29
Getting Creative with FFU ...........................................................................37
Know Thy Customer .....................................................................................41
Summary .........................................................................................................46
3. Technical Creativity and Idea Generation ..............................................49
Creativity in an Industrial Environment ...................................................51
Reality Check on the Innovation Climate .................................................. 54
Fostering Technical Innovation ...................................................................57
Formalized Brainstorming ........................................................................... 63
Mechanics of Creative Development ..........................................................66
Organizational Hostility ...............................................................................70
Overcoming Systematic Barriers to Innovation ........................................75
Needs Bank and Opportunity List..............................................................82
Summary .........................................................................................................84
4. Finding Product Opportunity ....................................................................89
Market-Driven Organizations ......................................................................92
Manufacturing/Process-Centric Approaches ...........................................95
Balanced Approach .......................................................................................99
Paradox of Product Evolution .................................................................... 103
What to Look for in a Product Opportunity ............................................ 107
Cold Calls by Outsiders .............................................................................. 114
Customer Requests ...................................................................................... 116
Customer Modication of Your Product .................................................. 119
Summary ....................................................................................................... 121
vi Contents
5. Prioritizing Project Proposals ..................................................................123
Prioritization Styles ..................................................................................... 126
Considering Risk ..........................................................................................129
Considering Process Factors When Prioritizing ..................................... 131
Project Review ..............................................................................................133
Summary .......................................................................................................138
6. Evaluating Critical Parameters in the Process ...................................... 143
Things We Want to Understand ................................................................ 146
Proactive Record Keeping .......................................................................... 152
End-to-End Data Collection........................................................................ 155
Auditing Product Performance ..................................................................158
Active Experimentation .............................................................................. 160
Customizing Products for Niche Markets ................................................ 163
Tracing the Process Paths ........................................................................... 166
Summary ....................................................................................................... 170
7. Organizing Development Projects.......................................................... 175
Dening the Product ................................................................................... 180
Conicts in Creating Specications .......................................................... 186
Costing Concerns for Dynamic Products ................................................ 192
Planning for a Quality Outcome ............................................................... 194
Summary ....................................................................................................... 198
8. Project Execution and Oversight ............................................................. 203
Project Problems ..........................................................................................204
Project Organization ...................................................................................208
Project Execution Guidelines ..................................................................... 213
Basic Steps ..................................................................................................... 219
Intellectual Property ...................................................................................222
Development Resources ..............................................................................227
Summary .......................................................................................................230
9. Small-Scale Trials .......................................................................................235
Tools for Small-Scale Development ...........................................................239
Procedures for Small-Scale Development ................................................242
Barriers to Effective Projects ......................................................................247
Managing the Development Organization .............................................. 251
Retaining Samples and Information .........................................................257
Scalability ...................................................................................................... 262
Summary .......................................................................................................266
10. Development Trials on Large-Scale Equipment ..................................273
Trials from the Manufacturing Point of View .........................................277
Preparing for a Plant Trial .......................................................................... 282
viiContents
Running a Plant Trial .................................................................................. 286
Follow-Through ............................................................................................290
Types of Plant Trials (From the Plant Perspective) ................................. 291
Types of Plant Trials (From the R&D Perspective) ..................................299
Equipment Considerations for Plant Trials ..............................................303
Summary .......................................................................................................308
11. Managing and Controlling the Process ................................................. 311
Detecting Process Variability ..................................................................... 312
State of the Process ...................................................................................... 313
Asking the Right Questions ....................................................................... 316
Functional Responsibilities ........................................................................ 321
Dealing with Trade-offs .............................................................................. 326
Technical Decision Making ........................................................................ 328
Anticipating Risk .........................................................................................334
Failure Analysis and Corrective Action ................................................... 339
Summary .......................................................................................................344
12. Controlling Raw Materials .......................................................................347
Material Guidelines in the Development Phase ......................................349
Material Rules for Industrial Scale-up ......................................................355
Material Considerations During the Specication Writing Step .......... 360
Qualifying Second-Source Raw Materials ............................................... 364
Summary .......................................................................................................367
13. Complex Manufacturing Situations .......................................................369
In-Line Process Trains .................................................................................375
Considering Outsourced Production ........................................................380
Qualifying a Toll Vendor ............................................................................ 382
Managing the Relationship ........................................................................386
Summary .......................................................................................................390
14. Human Factors ............................................................................................ 393
Human Input on the Plant Floor ...............................................................395
Organizational Behavior .............................................................................399
Technical Behavior .......................................................................................403
Marketing/Sales Behavior ..........................................................................407
Economics of Scarcity .................................................................................. 410
Summary ....................................................................................................... 412
15. Managing Customer Expectations .......................................................... 415
Customer Mentality ..................................................................................... 417
Customer Input ............................................................................................421
Knowing Where You Stand ........................................................................424
Getting the Business ....................................................................................427
viii Contents
Keeping the Business ..................................................................................430
Summary .......................................................................................................432
16. Proprietary Systems ................................................................................... 435
System Trade-offs .........................................................................................439
Developing Products for Proprietary Systems ........................................443
Summary .......................................................................................................449

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