Now that you've seen the details of class inheritance in the previous chapter, it is a good time to take a step back and look at Scala's class hierarchy as a whole. In Scala, every class inherits from a common superclass named Any. Because every class is a subclass of Any, the methods defined in Any are "universal" methods: they may be invoked on any object. Scala also defines some interesting classes at the bottom of the hierarchy, Null and Nothing, which essentially act as common subclasses. For example, just as Any is a superclass of every other class, Nothing is a subclass of every other class. In this chapter, we'll give you a tour of Scala's class hierarchy.
11.1 Scala's class hierarchy
Figure 11.1 shows an ...