10. Conclusions

Pervaporation is a mature technology today, with several applications with proven performance. For solvent dehydration, pervaporation has become a standard method because (1) the selectivity for water is very high with state-of-the-art membranes and (2) the concentration range for dehydration, in which a relatively small amount of water has to be removed, is ideal for pervaporation. Thus, while dehydration is quite feasible for a wide range of solvents (with isopropanol among the most studied compounds, along with ethanol), research challenges mainly remain in the development of robust processes for dehydration of a wide range of solvents that form azeotropes with water at relatively low water fractions, not only by developing ...

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