Chapter 4. Fresh concrete

Although fresh concrete is only of transient interest, we should note that the strength of concrete of given mix proportions is very seriously affected by the degree of its compaction. It is vital, therefore, that the consistency of the mix be such that the concrete can be transported, placed, compacted, and finished sufficiently easily and without segregation. This chapter is therefore devoted to the properties of fresh concrete which will contribute to such an objective.

Before considering fresh concrete, we should observe that the first three chapters discussed only two of the three essential ingredients of concrete: cement and aggregate. The third essential ingredient is water, and this will be considered below. ...

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