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Psychology, Fifth Edition

Book Description

There are numerous textbooks that explain the theories and principles of psychology, but many are too dry or academic. Idiot's Guides: Psychology, 5th Edition breaks down the complexity of psychology and helps readers understand the how and why of the human mind, the causes of things like mental illness, how we react to situations, and how we become who we are. The book steers clear of self-help and pop psychology and focuses on more of an academic approach. Key concepts are broken down into plain and simple language, and supplemented with insightful illustrations that help explain each concept in a visual format that is fun and engaging. Readers start with the root of the human mind and move into the most popular theories of modern psychology, while exploring the lives and genius (and madness) behind the most famous pioneers in the field, such as Freud and Jung. From behaviorism to social psychology to cognitive psychology, readers will learn what makes all of us tick, and why we are who we are.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Introduction
  5. Part 1 Putting It in Perspective
    1. 1 A Little Psychological Insight
      1. What Is Psychology?
        1. Telling It Like It Is
        2. Why, Oh Why?
        3. The Exception to the Rule
        4. Becoming the New, Improved Model
        5. They’re Everywhere
        6. How They Used to Do It
        7. Psychology Today
      2. Methods for Studying Madness
        1. Delving into the Descriptive
        2. Is There a Relationship?
        3. The Experimental Experience
      3. Keeping Junk Science Out
    2. 2 Multiple Perspectives of Psychology
      1. The Seven Main Perspectives
        1. I Was Born This Way
        2. It’s Only the Tip of the Iceberg
        3. We’re Just Rats in a Maze
        4. I Think, Therefore I Am
        5. It’s a Dog-Eat-Dog World
        6. No Man Is an Island
        7. Looking on the Bright Side
        8. Psychology in Action
    3. 3 Bio Psycho What?
      1. It’s Evolutionary
        1. Adapting to Changes
      2. The Headquarters of Human Behavior
        1. A Living Record of Time Travel
        2. Hello Central!
      3. Getting Your Brain Organized
      4. Left Brain, Right Brain
        1. A Leftward or Rightward Slant?
        2. Partners for Life
      5. Meet the Mother Lobes
        1. Front and Center
        2. Temporally Speaking
        3. Parietals Rule
        4. An Occipital Complex?
      6. The Plastic Brain
      7. Working with Half a Brain
      8. You’ve Got Nerve
      9. Speedy Delivery
      10. Doing the Neuron Dance
      11. Synaptically Speaking
        1. White Matter Matters!
      12. Blame It on Your Hormones
        1. Adrenaline Alert
      13. Brain Booboos
    4. 4 The Chicken or the Egg?
      1. Living with Wolves
        1. Taming the Wild Child
        2. Looking Beneath the Surface
      2. Nature or Nurture?
        1. The Great Debate, Philosophically Speaking
        2. G + E = Me
      3. Asking the Right Questions
      4. What Twins Tell Us
      5. Flip That Switch!
      6. Give Your Genes a Little Culture
      7. Family Genes and Other Heirlooms
      8. Dominating Genes
        1. You Can’t Get Lost with This Map
        2. Too Much Information?
      9. Don’t Blame Your Genes
        1. Growing Up on the Wild Side
      10. Typical Human Behavior
        1. Vive la Différence!
      11. Evolutionary Theory Gone Awry
        1. Mother Nature’s Morality
        2. I Just Couldn’t Help Myself!
      12. Baby Builds on Blueprints
      13. Is There Such a Thing as Normal?
        1. Oh, Grow Up!
      14. The Parental Part of the Equation
        1. Growing Up Emotionally
      15. Nature? Nurture? It’s Both!
    5. 5 It’s Only a Stage
      1. Studying Bored Babies
      2. Fast Learners and Good Teachers
      3. I Second That Emotion
      4. Learning Baby Talk
      5. LADs and LASSes
      6. Listen and Learn
      7. The Child Psychologist
      8. Psych School for Kids
        1. The Curious Child
        2. Coping with Curveballs
      9. Performing on Stage
        1. Sensorimotor Stage
        2. Preoperational Stage
        3. Concrete Operations
        4. Formal Operations
      10. Speak Before You Think—or Vice Versa
      11. The Moral of the Story
      12. Empathetically Yours
        1. Midlife Isn’t the First Crisis
  6. Part 2 Wake Up and Smell the Coffee
    1. 6 Come to Your Senses
      1. Creating a Sensation
      2. On the Threshold of Discovery
        1. Star Light, Star Bright
        2. Crossing the Threshold
      3. Get Your Signals Straight
      4. Common Senses
      5. What Stimulates You?
      6. The Big Five
        1. Vision
        2. Hearing
        3. Smell
        4. Taste
        5. Touch
        6. The Sixth Sense?
      7. Pain in the What?
        1. The Placebo Effect
      8. Starting from the Top Down and the Bottom Up
        1. Bottom Up and Top Down
        2. Watch Out! Reality Under Construction
      9. Life Is an Illusion
      10. Meet Ponzo the Western Illusion
      11. Pay Attention When I’m Talking to You
      12. Working Smarter, Not Harder
      13. Don’t Take It Out of Context
        1. Context? Which Context?
    2. 7 Consciousness-Raising Time
      1. Are You Self-Conscious?
        1. On the Wings of Fantasy
        2. You Are What You Think
      2. Unconscious, Highly Conscious, and Everything in Between
        1. Automatic Pilot
        2. The File Cabinet
        3. The Secret Service
        4. The Clearinghouse
      3. Alpha, Beta, Delta—the Sleep Fraternity
        1. All the World’s a Stage
      4. Doc, I Just Can’t Sleep
      5. This Is Your Brain on No Sleep
      6. I’m So-o-o Sleepy
      7. I Must Be Dreaming
      8. The Ticking of Your Internal Clock
      9. Altered Consciousness
      10. Look Deeply into My Eyes
        1. You’re Getting Very, Very Sleepy
      11. Don’t Bother Me, I’m Meditating
      12. I Must Be Hallucinating
        1. We’re Not Talking Beads and Lava Lamps Here
      13. Operating Under the Influence
        1. Some Pills Make You Larger
        2. Risking Addiction
        3. Lethal Weapons
      14. The Monkey on Your Back
        1. It All Sneaks Up on You
        2. The Addictive Mind
    3. 8 Get That Through Your Thick Skull!
      1. Helpless
      2. Learning About Learning
      3. Does the Name Pavlov Ring a Bell?
      4. Learning the Classics
        1. Coming In on Cue
        2. Where There’s Smoke
      5. Classical Learning Isn’t Always Fun
      6. Learning About Meaningful Relationships
        1. Developing Discrimination
      7. Think of the Consequences
        1. A Cat in a Box
        2. Teaching Old Dogs New Tricks
      8. Skinner and Reinforcing Behavior
        1. Calling in Reinforcements
      9. The Terminators
        1. Nipping Bad Behaviors in the Bud
        2. Of Carrots and Sticks
        3. The Mind-Body Learning Connection
        4. The Behavior Police
      10. The Cognitivist View
        1. Attitudes and Expectations
        2. Experience and Interpretation
        3. Attention, Please!
      11. Modeling Behavior
      12. Don’t Be Scared
      13. Getting Rid of Bad Habits
    4. 9 Coming to Terms with Your Memory
      1. Kidnapped?
      2. The Memory as Court Jester
      3. Learning About Remembering from Forgetting
      4. Memory Tests
      5. The Long and Short of It
        1. Photographer at Work
        2. The Organic Data Processor
        3. The Curious Curator
      6. Visiting the Memory Museum
        1. I Was Only Following Procedure
        2. Well, I Declare!
      7. Now, Where Did I Put That Thought?
      8. Will You Gain Wisdom or Grow Senile?
      9. A Method for Remembering
      10. Hooked on Mnemonics
      11. Mnemonics Boosters
      12. Warning: Under Construction
        1. Sleep: Memory’s Silent Partner
      13. The 90-Minute Power Snooze
      14. The Truth About False Memories
        1. Sorting the True from the False
      15. From the Mouths of Babes
      16. Flashbulb Repressed Memories
      17. Memory Under Fire
  7. Part 3 The Forces Are with You
    1. 10 What’s Your Motive?
      1. It’s a Jungle in Here
        1. Let’s Get Motivated
      2. What Drives Your Body?
      3. The Brain’s Motivation Station
      4. The Hunger Center
      5. We’re All Picky Eaters
      6. Hunger Games
        1. Mmmmmm, It’s So Appetizing!
      7. I’ll Take Just One!
        1. My Genes Made Me Do It!
      8. Ready, Set, Go
      9. Driving the Sex Machine
        1. Those Sexy Hormones!
        2. Tanking Up on Testosterone
        3. I Love You for Your Mind
        4. Dealing with Dysfunction
      10. The Fragile Sex
      11. Oriented Toward Sex
        1. It’s Just the Way It Is
      12. In Search of Higher Ground
        1. Moving on Up
      13. The Need to Achieve
      14. What Motive Works for You?
    2. 11 Emotions in Motion
      1. Hooked on a Feeling
      2. Adjust Your Attitude and Improve Your Love Life!
      3. Where Did These Feelings Come From?
      4. In-the-Body Experiences
      5. What We Think About Feelings
      6. The Emotional Landscape
      7. Touchy-Feely Psychology
      8. Are Your Feelings Cultured?
      9. Guilt Trippin’
      10. Emotional Intelligence
      11. Managing Your Everyday Moods
      12. Meet the Mood Managers
      13. Drugs and Emotions
      14. Ground to Trauma Control: Do You Read Me?
      15. Don’t Do Me Any Favors
    3. 12 Think Before You Speak
      1. Mind Detectives
      2. Models of the Mind
      3. Information Overload!
        1. Investigating Thoughts
        2. Introspection
        3. Behavioral Observations
        4. Analyzing Errors
        5. Brain Scanning
      4. Jeopardy of the Mind
        1. I’ll Take “Building Blocks” for $200
      5. Great Expectations
        1. The Big Fish or the Whole Ocean?
      6. We’re All Actors Following Scripts
      7. Be Reasonable
      8. Problem Solving
        1. Defining Your Puzzles
        2. Desperately Seeking Solutions
      9. Guilty Until Proven Innocent
        1. Decisions: Older and Wiser?
      10. Seven Strategies for Improving Your Decision-Making Batting Average
    4. 13 Don’t Blow a Fuse!
      1. Defining Stress
        1. Stress Is All Around
        2. Stress and the Individual
      2. Stress Up-Close and Personal
      3. Making Change
      4. How Do You Know If You’re Stressed Out?
      5. Burning Out
        1. Buffering Against Burnout!
      6. I Feel Like Fighting or Fleeing
      7. But I Feel Like Tending and Befriending
      8. It’s a GAS, GAS, GAS
        1. GASsing Up
        2. All Stations on Alert!
        3. Fighting Harder
        4. Ending in Exhaustion
      9. Coping or Moping
        1. Categories of Coping
        2. Focusing on the Problem
        3. Gaining the Emotional Edge
        4. Identifying Your Stressors
      10. I Think I Can, I Think I Can
      11. The Mind-Body Immunity Connection
      12. Seeking Immunity Through Killer Ts
      13. Writing with a Capital T
      14. Playing Catch-Up
  8. Part 4 All for One and One for All
    1. 14 Me, Myself, and I
      1. Know Thyself
        1. But Who Is Thyself?
      2. Mirror, Mirror on the Wall
      3. Gender and Selfhood
      4. Gender Bending
      5. Big-Time Gender Blues
      6. It’s a Teen Thing
        1. Getting Older and Better?
      7. Hello, High Esteemer
      8. Safeguarding Self-Esteem
        1. Psychic Self-Defense
        2. Sex in Overdrive
      9. Urges “R” Us
      10. On the Mat with Freud
      11. Post-Freudian Personalities
      12. Sacrificing Identity to Escape Pain
      13. The Well-Defended Mind
        1. The Best Defense
        2. Freeing the Psychic Balloons!
        3. The Personality Habit
        4. Who’s in the Driver’s Seat?
    2. 15 He’s Got … Personality!
      1. Finding the Person in Personality
      2. A Picture of the Psyche
      3. Minnesota, the Personality State
      4. Can You Fool Your Psychologist?
      5. Personalities Are Like Fine Wine
      6. The Theories Behind the Tests
      7. What State Are Your Traits In?
      8. Allport’s Search for Personality
      9. The Eysenck Alternative
      10. The Personalities Behind the Theories
      11. Those Temperamental Genes
        1. Personality by Birth Order
        2. Personality by Gender
      12. Disturbing Personalities
        1. We’re All a Little Bit “Off”
        2. But It’s All About Me and My Needs!
        3. How Personality Disorders Develop
        4. The Best Treatments for Personality Disorders
    3. 16 Conform to the Norm
      1. Blame It on the Situation
        1. Learn Your Roles
        2. Play by the Rules
        3. Adapt to the Norms
      2. The Three R’s of Social School
      3. Warning: Check Your References
      4. Nonconformists Are Hard to Find
      5. The Shocking Truth About Obedience
        1. When Authority Rules
      6. Demanding Characteristics
      7. Viva la Minority!
        1. How to Be a Rebel
      8. Give Me Some Help Here
      9. Transforming Apathy into Action
      10. Fields of Prophecies
      11. Prejudice: Social Reality Running Amok
  9. Part 5 Just What Is Normal, Anyway?
    1. 17 Are You Out of Your Mind?
      1. Defining Abnormal
      2. How Psychologists Use MUUDI
      3. Sick Societies
      4. Psychology Today
        1. Walking the Biological Beat
        2. Pulling for the Psychological Team
      5. DSM-5: The Mental Health Catalog
      6. The DSM-5 Catalog
      7. Warning: Labels Can Be Hazardous
      8. The Gender Politics of Mental Illness
      9. Are You Insane?
        1. Mental Illness vs. Insanity
      10. Weapons Against Mental Dysfunction
      11. Better Living Through Chemistry
        1. Choosing Your Drugs Carefully
        2. Cures for Kids
      12. The Facts About ECT
        1. When the Cure Is Worse Than the Disease
      13. Winning the Battle with Talking Cures
      14. A Team of Professionals
        1. Finding Your Therapy Match
      15. Talking It Out
        1. Short and Sweet or Long and Slow?
        2. Getting Wired
      16. But Does It Work?
    2. 18 Affective Disorders
      1. Bad Mood or Big Time Trouble?
      2. What Depression Feels Like
      3. Why Me?
      4. Those Good Genes Can Help
      5. Bad Mood Busters
      6. Low-Level Sadness
      7. The Post-Baby Plummet
      8. Riding the Mood Roller Coaster
      9. Moody Children and Terrible Teens
      10. Getting the Best Treatment
      11. Feeling Anxious About Everything
      12. Hit-and-Run Fear
        1. Panic-Attack Pileup
      13. Shut in the House All Day
      14. Meet the Phobia Family
        1. Obsessive and Compulsive
        2. Kicked Out of the Club
      15. Let’s Stay Together
      16. Overcoming Anxiety
      17. I Can’t Throw It Away!
    3. 19 Postcards from the Edge of Reality
      1. The Scoop on Schizophrenia
        1. The Split Personality
      2. The Schizoaffective Story
        1. Schizophrenia from the Inside Out
        2. Delusions
        3. Hallucinations
        4. Disorganized Speech
        5. Grossly Disorganized Behavior
        6. Changes in Emotions
        7. Negatively Speaking
      3. What Causes Schizophrenia?
        1. The Biological Connection
        2. Gene Links
        3. Prenatal Effects
        4. Effects of the Home Environment
        5. Cultural Influences
      4. When Schizophrenia Happens in Childhood
      5. Who Gets Better?
      6. Successful Treatment for Schizophrenia
        1. Clearing Any Remaining Confusion
      7. The Perils of Paranoia
        1. From Distress to Delusion
      8. Paranoid Delusional Disorder
        1. The Green-Eyed Monster
        2. The Strange Psyche of the Stalker
        3. The Origins of Paranoid Delusions
      9. Treating Delusional Disorders
    4. 20 Out of Control
      1. What’s Eating You?
      2. Wasting Away to Nothing
        1. The Food Roller Coaster
        2. I Just Can’t Quit Eating
        3. “Comfort” Food Gone Wrong
        4. The Vicious Binge-Diet Cycle
      3. We Look Different, but We Have a Lot in Common
      4. An Ounce of Prevention Is Worth a Pound of Cure
      5. Successfully Battling Eating Disorders
        1. When Someone You Love Has an Eating Disorder
      6. Eat, Drink, and Be … Addicted?
        1. The Road to Alcoholism
        2. Why Can’t I Handle My Liquor?
      7. Overcoming Alcohol Dependence
      8. I Can’t Control My Impulses
        1. I Just Couldn’t Resist!
        2. Pyromania
        3. Pathological Gambling
      9. Getting Control Over Impulse Disorders
  10. Appendixes
  11. A Glossary
  12. B Psychology Resources
  13. Index