Any time you are stuck on a problem, introduce more notation.

—Chris Skinner [Plenary Lecture, Aug 1997, Topics in Number Theory, Penn State]

|a|absolute value of real number a
min Sminimum of elements of set S
max Smaximum of elements of set S
exp(a)ea, where
log xlogarithm of x with respect to some unspecified base (like 10)
ln xloge x, where
lg xlog2 x
logk x(log x)k (similarly, lnk x = (ln x)k and lgk x = (lg x)k)
:=is defined as (or “is assigned the value” in code snippets)
complex conjugate (x – iy) of the complex number z = x

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