Any time you are stuck on a problem, introduce more notation.

—Chris Skinner [Plenary Lecture, Aug 1997, Topics in Number Theory, Penn State]

General | |

|a| | absolute value of real number a |

min S | minimum of elements of set S |

max S | maximum of elements of set S |

exp(a) | e^{a}, where |

log x | logarithm of x with respect to some unspecified base (like 10) |

ln x | log_{e} x, where |

lg x | log_{2} x |

log^{k} x | (log x)^{k} (similarly, ln^{k} x = (ln x)^{k} and lg^{k} x = (lg x)^{k}) |

:= | is defined as (or “is assigned the value” in code snippets) |

i | |

complex conjugate (x – iy) of the complex number z = x |

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