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Basics of Negotiation Theory

Neustadt: Governance Is Persuasion and Bargaining

Negotiations are not limited to explicit bargaining situations, such as that between a union and the management, or between nations in bilateral or multilateral forums. The imperative to secure agreements is a human condition. Most negotiations are implicit rather than explicit. All senior functionaries in government, whether political or administrative, are engaged in indirect management, that is, their formal authority falls short of their responsibilities and their success is dependent on actions by individuals and agencies outside the chain of their command, and over whom they have no direct control. Even in respect of agencies and individuals over whom one ...

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