One of the challenges of working with geospatial data is that geodetic locations (points on the Earth's surface) are mapped into a two-dimensional Cartesian plane using a cartographic projection. We looked at projections in the previous chapter: whenever you have some geospatial data, you need to know which projection that data uses. You also need to know the datum (model of the Earth's shape) assumed by the data.
A common challenge when dealing with geospatial data is that you have to convert data from one projection/datum to another. Fortunately, there is a Python library
pyproj which makes this task easy.
pyproj is a Python "wrapper" around another library called
PROJ.4. "PROJ.4" is an abbreviation for Version 4 ...