Chapter 3
Probability Distributions
This chapter begins with the basic notions of mathematical statistics
that form the framework for analysis of financial data (see, e.g.,
[1–3]). In Section 3.2, a number of distributions widely used in statis-
tical data analysis are listed. The stable distributions that have become
popular in Econophysics research are discussed in Section 3.3.
3.1 BASIC DEFINITIONS
Consider the random variable (or variate) X. The probability dens-
ity function P(x) defines the probability to find X between a and b
Pr(a X b) ¼
ð
b
a
P(x)dx (3:1:1)
The probability density must be a non-negative function and must
satisfy the normalization condition
ð
X
max
X
min
P(x)dx ¼ 1(3:1:2)
where the interval [X
min
,X
max
] is the range of all possible values of X.
In fact, the infinite limits [1, 1] can always be used since P(x) may
17
be set to zero outside the interval [X
min
,X
max
]. As a rule, the infinite
integration limits are further omitted.
Another way of describing random variable is to use the cumulative
distribution function
Pr(X b) ¼
ð
b
1
P(x)dx (3:1:3)
Obviously, probability satisfies the condition
Pr(X > b) ¼ 1 Pr(X b) (3:1:4)
Two characteristics are used to describe probable values of random
variable X: mean (or expectation) and median. Mean of X is the
average of all possible values of X that are weighed with the prob-
ability density P(x)
m E[X] ¼
ð
xP(x)dx (3:1:5)
Median of X is the value, M, for which
Pr(X > M) ¼ Pr(X < M) ¼ 0:5(3:1:6)
Median is the preferable characteristic of the most probable value for
strongly skewed data samples. Consider a sample of lottery tickets
that has one ‘‘lucky’’ ticket winning one million dollars and 999
‘‘losers.’’ The mean win in this sample is $1000, which does not
realistically describe the lottery outcome. The median zero value is a
much more relevant characteristic in this case.
The expectation of a random variable calculated using some avail-
able information I
t
(that may change with time t) is called conditional
expectation. The conditional probability density is denoted by P(xjI
t
).
Conditional expectation equals
E[X
t
jI
t
] ¼
ð
xP(xjI
t
)dx (3:1:7)
Variance, Var, and the standard deviation, s, are the conventional
estimates of the deviations from the mean values of X
Var[X] s
2
¼
ð
(x m)
2
P(x)dx (3:1:8)
18 Probability Distributions
In financial literature, the standard deviation of price is used to
characterize the price volatility.
The higher-order moments of the probability distributions are
defined as
m
n
E[X
n
] ¼
ð
x
n
P(x)dx (3:1:9)
According to this definition, mean is the first moment (m m
1
), and
variance can be expressed via the first two moments, s
2
¼ m
2
m
2
.
Two other important parameters, skewness S and kurtosis K, are
related to the third and fourth moments, respectively,
S ¼ E[(x m)
3
]=s
3
,K¼ E[(x m)
4
]=s
4
(3:1:10)
Both parameters, S and K, are dimensionless. Zero skewness implies
that the distribution is symmetrical around its mean value. The posi-
tive and negative values of skewness indicate long positive tails and
long negative tails, respectively. Kurtosis characterizes the distribu-
tion peakedness. Kurtosis of the normal distribution equals three.
The excess kurtosis, K
e
¼ K 3, is often used as a measure of devi-
ation from the normal distribution. In particular, positive excess
kurtosis (or leptokurtosis) indicates more frequent medium and large
deviations from the mean value than is typical for the normal distri-
bution. Leptokurtosis leads to a flatter central part and to so-called
fat tails in the distribution. Negative excess kurtosis indicates frequent
small deviations from the mean value. In this case, the distribution
sharpens around its mean value while the distribution tails decay
faster than the tails of the normal distribution.
The joint distribution of two random variables X and Y is the
generalization of the cumulative distribution (see 3.1.3)
Pr(X b, Y c) ¼
ð
b
1
ð
c
1
h(x, y)dxdy (3:1:11)
In (3.1.11), h(x, y) is the joint density that satisfies the normalization
condition
ð
1
1
ð
1
1
h(x, y)dxdy ¼ 1(3:1:12)
Probability Distributions 19

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