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Quantum Optics for Engineers by F.J. Duarte

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20

Quantum Measurements

20.1  Introduction

Classically, the process of a measurement is relatively straightforward. The objects measured are macroscopic and they can be measured repeatedly without being disturbed in a nondestructive process. For example, using a meter rule, or a metric caliper, one can measure repeatedly the length of an object thus obtaining a series of measurements that can lead to an average dimension and a corresponding standard of deviation. In other words, the experimental physicist obtains the measurement and the error associated with that measurement (x ± ∆x). Thus, classically speaking, the measurement issue is settled.

All experimental measurements include an error. Measurements without an error, or without an ...

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