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Quantum Radar by Marco Lanzagorta

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CHAPTER 2

The Photon

The photon is the elementary excitation of the quantum electromagnetic field. That is, electromagnetic fields are made of photons. Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic theory that describes the dynamics of photons and its interactions with matter [6, 40, 90, 106]. High precision experiments at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) have shown that, to date, QED is the most accurate physical theory known to man [24].

In this chapter and the next we will briefly review the basic structure of quantum electromagnetic fields as they relate to non-relativistic matter fields. This specific class of applications of QED is usually referred as quantum optics [13, 68, 73, 92]. A detailed discussion of QED ...

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