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# How to do it...

To process entire rows or columns using the apply function, follow these steps:

1. Calculate row minimums for the matrix:
```> m <- matrix(seq(1,16), 4, 4)
> m

[,1] [,2] [,3] [,4]
[1,]    1    5    9   13
[2,]    2    6   10   14
[3,]    3    7   11   15
[4,]    4    8   12   16

> apply(m, 1, min)

[1] 1 2 3 4 ```
1. Calculate column maximums for the matrix:
```> apply(m, 2, max)

[1]  4  8 12 16 ```
1. Create a new matrix by squaring every element of the given matrix:
```> apply(m,c(1,2),function(x) x^2)

[,1] [,2] [,3] [,4]
[1,]    1   25   81  169
[2,]    4   36  100  196
[3,]    9   49  121  225
[4,]   16   64  144  256 ```
1. Apply a function to every row and pass an argument to the function:
```> apply(m, 1, quantile, probs=c(.4,.8))
[,1] [,2] [,3] [,4]
40%  5.8  6.8  7.8  8.8
80% 10.6 11.6 12.6 13.6 ```

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