Many of the functions described in this book operate on matrices. The manipulation of matrices is built deeply into the R language. Table E.1 describes operators and functions that are particularly important for solving linear algebra problems. In the following table, A and B are matrices, x and b are vectors, and k is a scalar.
Operator or Function
|+ - * / Λ||Element-wise addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and exponentiation, respectively.|
|A %*% B||Matrix multiplication.|
|A %o% B||Outer product. AB'.|
|cbind(A, B, ...)||Combine matrices or vectors horizontally.|
|chol(A)||Choleski factorization of A. If R <- chol(A), then chol(A) contains ...|