Many of the functions described in this book operate on matrices. The manipulation of matrices is built deeply into the R
language. Table E.1 describes operators and functions that are particularly important for solving linear algebra problems. In the following table,
`A` and `B` are matrices, `x` and `b` are vectors, and `k` is a scalar.

Operator or Function |
Description |
---|---|

+ - * / Λ | Element-wise addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and exponentiation, respectively. |

A %*% B | Matrix multiplication. |

A %o% B | Outer product. AB'. |

cbind(A, B, ...) | Combine matrices or vectors horizontally. |

chol(A) | Choleski factorization of A. If R <- chol(A), then chol(A) contains ... |

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