5.1.1 Energy Demand
Energy demand headed the list entitled “top ten Global Concerns” by Richard Errett Smalley, Nobel laureate in chemistry for the year of 1996, at the 2004 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting in Boston . The energy demand of our planet keeps on increasing due to improvements in technology and economic status, and also increasing population. The worldwide energy consumption is expected to be doubled in the next few decades and to be tripled by the end of this century . Moreover, the energy economy is still highly dependent on three forms of fossil fuels – oil, natural gases, and coal – nearly 80% of the present energy needs are fulfilled by these nonrenewable energy sources . Because of the nonrenewable nature of these conventional energy sources, researchers are urgently developing sustainable or renewable energy solutions to meet the current global energy demand . At the present rate of consumption, all the fossil fuel available will be consumed completely around 2090.
Apart from the energy demand, another ...