9Fabrication of Metal Top Electrode via Solution‐based Printing Technique for Efficient Inverted Organic Solar Cells

Navaneethan Duraisamy1, Kavitha Kandiah2, Kyung‐Hyun Choi3, Dhanaraj Gopi1, Ramesh Rajendran4, Pazhanivel Thangavelu4, and Maadeswaran Palanisamy5

1 Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, India

2 Department of Microbiology, Periyar University, India

3 Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Republic of Korea

4 Department of Physics, Periyar University, India

5 Department of Energy Studies, Periyar University, India

9.1 Introduction

Increasing global warming and extreme weather changes with respect to excessive use of fossil fuels and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions tend to concentrate research efforts on renewable energy sources. Numerous impressive renewable energy sources are exist, such as wind energy, hydropower, solar cells, solar thermal, wave, and tidal power. Among these energy sources, solar energy based photovoltaic (PV) technologies are subject to extensive attention to fulfill the future energy needs [14]. The sun is the main source of energy for our planet, providing total radiation of approximately 3 × 1024 J/year. Whereas, 1.7 × 105 TW energy reaches the earth’s surface, about 600 TW is available for practical application and 60 TW could be produced via solar granges, which have an efficiency of 10% [5]. These records tend to clear the possibility of using PV technology as a solution for the global energy demand ...

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