11Rational Strategies for Large‐area Perovskite Solar Cells: Laboratory Scale to Industrial Technology

Arunachalam Arulraj1 and Mohan Ramesh2

1 University College of Engineering‐Bharathidasan, Institute of Technology (BIT) campus, Anna University, India

2 CSIR‐Central Electrochemical Research Institute, India

11.1 Introduction

The earth receives almost 2.9 × 1015 kW of energy every day in the form of electromagnetic radiation from the sun, which is about one hundred times the total energy consumption of the globe in a year [1]. The conversion of solar energy into electrical energy is called photovoltaic technology or solar technology. Solar technology is not new, its history spans from the seventh century B.C, when we started out of using solar radiation with glass and mirrors to light fires. At present, we have everything from solar‐powered bags to solar‐ powered buildings [2]. In 1954, Bell telephone research laboratories reported 4% efficiency using silicon solar cells, which later improved to attain 11% efficiency. During this era the cost of generation of one watt was about $77/watt. However, to date the efficiency of silicon‐based solar cells has not crossed 18–20% and the costs of production are about $5–6/watt.

The journey of perovskite structured materials started in the nineteenth century, when there were research studies of inorganic lead halides [3]; organic–inorganic halides were studied in the early twentieth century [4]. The first reports of perovskite‐structured ...

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