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Real-Time Rendering

Book Description

Consumers today expect extremely realistic imagery generated in real time for interactive applications such as computer games, virtual prototyping, and scientific visualisation. However, the increasing demands for fidelity coupled with rapid advances in hardware architecture pose a challenge: how do you find optimal, sustainable solutions to accommodate both speed of rendering and quality? Real-Time Rendering: Computer Graphics with Control Engineering presents a novel framework for solving the perennial challenge of resource allocation and the trade-off between quality and speed in interactive computer graphics rendering.

Conventional approaches are mainly based on heuristics and algorithms, are largely application specific, and offer fluctuating performance, particularly as applications become more complex. The solution proposed by the authors draws on powerful concepts from control engineering to address these shortcomings. Expanding the horizon of real-time rendering techniques, this book:

  • Explains how control systems work with real-time computer graphics
  • Proposes a data-driven modelling approach that more accurately represents the system behaviour of the rendering process
  • Develops a control system strategy for linear and non-linear models using proportional, integral, derivative (PID) and fuzzy control techniques
  • Uses real-world data from rendering applications in proof-of-concept experiments
  • Compares the proposed solution to existing techniques
  • Provides practical details on implementation, including references to tools and source code

This pioneering work takes a major step forward by applying control theory in the context of a computer graphics system. Promoting cross-disciplinary research, it offers guidance for anyone who wants to develop more advanced solutions for real-time computer graphics rendering.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Dedication Page
  6. Table of Contents
  7. List of Figures
  8. List of Tables
  9. List of Abbreviations
  10. Preface
  11. Acknowledgements
  12. Summary
  13. Authors
  14. Chapter 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 Background and Motivation
    2. 1.2 Objectives and Contributions
    3. 1.3 Scope of Work
    4. 1.4 Book Outline
  15. Chapter 2 Preliminaries
    1. 2.1 Fundamentals of Real-Time 3D Rendering
      1. 2.1.1 Polygon-Based Rendering
      2. 2.1.2 Volumetric Rendering
      3. 2.1.3 Image-Based Rendering
    2. 2.2 System Identification
      1. 2.2.1 Data Collection
      2. 2.2.2 Model Selection
      3. 2.2.3 Computing Model Parameters
      4. 2.2.4 Evaluating Quality of Derived Model
    3. 2.3 Literature Review
      1. 2.3.1 Comparative Study on Existing Research
      2. 2.3.2 Control-Theoretic Approaches to Computer Systems
      3. 2.3.3 Control Principles in Computer Graphics Software
  16. Chapter 3 Linear Model Analysis of Real-Time Rendering
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Background
      1. 3.2.1 Control-Centric Definition for Rendering Time Control
      2. 3.2.2 Challenges in Using Heuristics
      3. 3.2.3 Purpose of Workload Characterisation and Analysis
    3. 3.3 Case for Data-Driven Modelling
      1. 3.3.1 Basis for Selection of System Variables
    4. 3.4 Linear System Model Representation for Real-Time Rendering
    5. 3.5 Experiments
      1. 3.5.1 Experiment 1: Single-Input—Single-Output (SISO) System
      2. 3.5.2 Experiment 2: Multiple-Input—Single-Output (MISO) System
      3. 3.5.3 Experiment 3: Control Framework Using System Model
    6. 3.6 Results
      1. 3.6.1 Experiment 1
      2. 3.6.2 Experiment 2
      3. 3.6.3 Experiment 3
    7. 3.7 Discussion
      1. 3.7.1 Comparison with Other Estimation Techniques
    8. 3.8 Superposition in 3D Rendering System Model
      1. 3.8.1 Principle of Superposition
      2. 3.8.2 Experiment
      3. 3.8.3 Simulation
      4. 3.8.4 Summary
      5. 3.8.5 Additional Notes
    9. 3.9 Conclusion
  17. Chapter 4 Modelling Non-Linear Rendering Processes
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Background
      1. 4.2.1 System Modelling with Neural Networks
      2. 4.2.2 Systems Modelling with Fuzzy Logic
    3. 4.3 Experiments
      1. 4.3.1 Time Delay Neural Network
      2. 4.3.2 Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System
    4. 4.4 Experiment Results
      1. 4.4.1 Time Delay Neural Networks
      2. 4.4.2 ANFIS Model
    5. 4.5 Discussion
    6. 4.6 Linearised Approximation from Non-Linear Models
    7. 4.7 Conclusion
  18. Chapter 5 Model-Based Control
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Control System Perspective of Computer Graphics Rendering Process
      1. 5.2.1 Control System Architectures for Real-Time Rendering
      2. 5.2.2 Control System Performance Concepts Applicable to Real-Time Rendering
    3. 5.3 PID Control and Tuning
      1. 5.3.1 Implementing PID Control for Rendering Process
      2. 5.3.2 Data Preprocessing in PID Control System
      3. 5.3.3 Gain Scheduling for Non-Linear Rendering Process Models
      4. 5.3.4 Neural PID Control
    4. 5.4 Experiments
    5. 5.5 Results
      1. 5.5.1 Simulation Environment
      2. 5.5.2 Control System with Actual Rendering Process
      3. 5.5.3 Gain Scheduling Control System
    6. 5.6 Conclusion
  19. Chapter 6 Model-Less Control
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Fuzzy Control System
    3. 6.3 Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Control
    4. 6.4 Experiment
    5. 6.5 Results
      1. 6.5.1 Simulation
      2. 6.5.2 Fuzzy Control System with Rendering Process
    6. 6.6 Discussion
    7. 6.7 Conclusion
  20. Chapter 7 Applications, Challenges, and Possibilities
    1. 7.1 System Architectures
      1. 7.1.1 Software Design
    2. 7.2 Software and Hardware Performance Considerations
      1. 7.2.1 Data Integrity
      2. 7.2.2 Plant—Controller Communication Latency
      3. 7.2.3 Data Structures and Handling
      4. 7.2.4 Complexity of Control Algorithm
    3. 7.3 Applications of Rendering Control Systems
      1. 7.3.1 Extension of Control System Framework
    4. 7.4 Convergence with Future Technology
      1. 7.4.1 Greater Computing Parallelism
      2. 7.4.2 Increased Use of Mobile Devices
      3. 7.4.3 Vast Improvements in Internet Infrastructure
    5. 7.5 Economic and Productivity Impacts
      1. 7.5.1 Enhanced Product Lifespan
      2. 7.5.2 Increased Productivity
      3. 7.5.3 New Products and Markets
  21. Chapter 8 Conclusion
    1. 8.1 Performance Analysis
      1. 8.1.1 Frame Rate Stability
      2. 8.1.2 Transient Response
      3. 8.1.3 Adaptive Tracking Capability
    2. 8.2 Summary
    3. 8.3 Future Work
  22. Annex A: Sample Applications
    1. A.1 Overview
    2. A.2 ProgressiveMesh Sample
    3. A.3 How Sample Works
    4. A.4 Tessellation Sample
    5. A.5 How Sample Works
    6. A.6 Samples
  23. Annex B: Patent for Application Method and System for Adaptive Control of Real-Time Computer Graphics Rendering
    1. Title of Invention
    2. Field of Invention
    3. Background of Invention
    4. Summary of Invention
    5. Brief Descriptions of Figures
    6. Detailed Descriptions of Figures
    7. Control Design and Mechanism
      1. I. PID Gain Scheduling
      2. II. Fuzzy Control (Model-Less Control)
    8. Claims (Preliminary)
  24. Annex C: Neural PID Control System Code
  25. References
  26. Publications and Achievements
    1. Patent Application
    2. Book
    3. Book Chapters
    4. Conference Papers
    5. Achievements
  27. Index