O'Reilly logo

Real World Haskell by Donald Bruce Stewart, Bryan O'Sullivan, John Goerzen

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

Working with Lists

As the bread and butter of functional programming, lists deserve some serious attention. The standard Prelude defines dozens of functions for dealing with lists. Many of these will be indispensable tools, so it’s important that we learn them early on.

For better or worse, this section is going to read a bit like a laundry list of functions. Why present so many functions at once? Because they are both easy to learn and absolutely ubiquitous. If we don’t have this toolbox at our fingertips, we’ll end up wasting time by reinventing simple functions that are already present in the standard libraries. So bear with us as we go through the list; the effort you’ll save will be huge.

The Data.List module is the real logical home of all standard list functions. The Prelude merely re-exports a large subset of the functions exported by Data.List. Several useful functions in Data.List are not re-exported by the standard Prelude. As we walk through list functions in the sections that follow, we will explicitly mention those that are only in Data.List:

ghci> :module +Data.List

Because none of these functions is complex or takes more than about three lines of Haskell to write, we’ll be brief in our descriptions of each. In fact, a quick and useful learning exercise is to write a definition of each function after you’ve read about it.

Basic List Manipulation

The length function tells us how many elements are in a list:

ghci> :type length
length :: [a] -> Int
ghci> length []
ghci> length [1,2,3]
ghci> length "strings are lists, too"

If you need to determine whether a list is empty, use the null function:

ghci> :type null
null :: [a] -> Bool
ghci> null []
ghci> null "plugh"

To access the first element of a list, use the head function:

ghci> :type head
head :: [a] -> a
ghci> head [1,2,3]

The converse, tail, returns all but the head of a list:

ghci> :type tail
tail :: [a] -> [a]
ghci> tail "foo"

Another function, last, returns the very last element of a list:

ghci> :type last
last :: [a] -> a
ghci> last "bar"

The converse of last is init, which returns a list of all but the last element of its input:

ghci> :type init
init :: [a] -> [a]
ghci> init "bar"

Several of the preceding functions behave poorly on empty lists, so be careful if you don’t know whether or not a list is empty. What form does their misbehavior take?

ghci> head []
*** Exception: Prelude.head: empty list

Try each of the previous functions in ghci. Which ones crash when given an empty list?

Safely and Sanely Working with Crashy Functions

When we want to use a function such as head, where we know that it might blow up on us if we pass in an empty list, there initially might be a strong temptation to check the length of the list before we call head. Let’s construct an artificial example to illustrate our point:

-- file: ch04/EfficientList.hs
myDumbExample xs = if length xs > 0
                   then head xs
                   else 'Z'

If we’re coming from a language such as Perl or Python, this might seem like a perfectly natural way to write this test. Behind the scenes, Python lists are arrays, and Perl arrays are, well, arrays. So we necessarily know how long they are, and calling len(foo) or scalar(@foo) is a perfectly natural thing to do. But as with many other things, it’s not a good idea to blindly transplant such an assumption into Haskell.

We’ve already seen the definition of the list algebraic data type many times, and we know that a list doesn’t store its own length explicitly. Thus, the only way that length can operate is to walk the entire list.

Therefore, when we care only whether or not a list is empty, calling length isn’t a good strategy. It can potentially do a lot more work than we want, if the list we’re working with is finite. Since Haskell lets us easily create infinite lists, a careless use of length may even result in an infinite loop.

A more appropriate function to call here instead is null, which runs in constant time. Better yet, using null makes our code indicate what property of the list we really care about. Here are two improved ways of expressing myDumbExample:

-- file: ch04/EfficientList.hs
mySmartExample xs = if not (null xs)
                    then head xs
                    else 'Z'

myOtherExample (x:_) = x
myOtherExample [] = 'Z'

Partial and Total Functions

Functions that have only return values defined for a subset of valid inputs are called partial functions (calling error doesn’t qualify as returning a value!). We call functions that return valid results over their entire input domains total functions.

It’s always a good idea to know whether a function you’re using is partial or total. Calling a partial function with an input that it can’t handle is probably the single biggest source of straightforward, avoidable bugs in Haskell programs.

Some Haskell programmers go so far as to give partial functions names that begin with a prefix such as unsafe so that they can’t shoot themselves in the foot accidentally.

It’s arguably a deficiency of the standard Prelude that it defines quite a few unsafe partial functions, such as head, without also providing safe total equivalents.

More Simple List Manipulations

Haskell’s name for the append function is (++):

ghci> :type (++)
(++) :: [a] -> [a] -> [a]
ghci> "foo" ++ "bar"
ghci> [] ++ [1,2,3]
ghci> [True] ++ []

The concat function takes a list of lists, all of the same type, and concatenates them into a single list:

ghci> :type concat
concat :: [[a]] -> [a]
ghci> concat [[1,2,3], [4,5,6]]

It removes one level of nesting:

ghci> concat [[[1,2],[3]], [[4],[5],[6]]]
ghci> concat (concat [[[1,2],[3]], [[4],[5],[6]]])

The reverse function returns the elements of a list in reverse order:

ghci> :type reverse
reverse :: [a] -> [a]
ghci> reverse "foo"

For lists of Bool, the and and or functions generalize their two-argument cousins, (&&) and (||), over lists:

ghci> :type and
and :: [Bool] -> Bool
ghci> and [True,False,True]
ghci> and []
ghci> :type or
or :: [Bool] -> Bool
ghci> or [False,False,False,True,False]
ghci> or []

They have more useful cousins, all and any, which operate on lists of any type. Each one takes a predicate as its first argument; all returns True if that predicate succeeds on every element of the list, while any returns True if the predicate succeeds on at least one element of the list:

ghci> :type all
all :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> Bool
ghci> all odd [1,3,5]
ghci> all odd [3,1,4,1,5,9,2,6,5]
ghci> all odd []
ghci> :type any
any :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> Bool
ghci> any even [3,1,4,1,5,9,2,6,5]
ghci> any even []

Working with Sublists

The take function, which we already discussed in Function Application, returns a sublist consisting of the first k elements from a list. Its converse, drop, drops k elements from the start of the list:

ghci> :type take
take :: Int -> [a] -> [a]
ghci> take 3 "foobar"
ghci> take 2 [1]
ghci> :type drop
drop :: Int -> [a] -> [a]
ghci> drop 3 "xyzzy"
ghci> drop 1 []

The splitAt function combines the functions take and drop, returning a pair of the input lists, split at the given index:

ghci> :type splitAt
splitAt :: Int -> [a] -> ([a], [a])
ghci> splitAt 3 "foobar"

The takeWhile and dropWhile functions take predicates. takeWhile takes elements from the beginning of a list as long as the predicate returns True, while dropWhile drops elements from the list as long as the predicate returns True:

ghci> :type takeWhile
takeWhile :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a]
ghci> takeWhile odd [1,3,5,6,8,9,11]
ghci> :type dropWhile
dropWhile :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a]
ghci> dropWhile even [2,4,6,7,9,10,12]

Just as splitAt tuples up the results of take and drop, the functions break (which we already saw in Warming Up: Portably Splitting Lines of Text) and span tuple up the results of takeWhile and dropWhile.

Each function takes a predicate; break consumes its input while its predicate fails, and span consumes while its predicate succeeds:

ghci> :type span
span :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a])
ghci> span even [2,4,6,7,9,10,11]
ghci> :type break
break :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a])
ghci> break even [1,3,5,6,8,9,10]

Searching Lists

As we’ve already seen, the elem function indicates whether a value is present in a list. It has a companion function, notElem:

ghci> :type elem
elem :: (Eq a) => a -> [a] -> Bool
ghci> 2 `elem` [5,3,2,1,1]
ghci> 2 `notElem` [5,3,2,1,1]

For a more general search, filter takes a predicate and returns every element of the list on which the predicate succeeds:

ghci> :type filter
filter :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a]
ghci> filter odd [2,4,1,3,6,8,5,7]

In Data.List, three predicates—isPrefixOf, isInfixOf, and isSuffixOf—let us test for the presence of sublists within a bigger list. The easiest way to use them is with infix notation.

The isPrefixOf function tells us whether its left argument matches the beginning of its right argument:

ghci> :module +Data.List
ghci> :type isPrefixOf
isPrefixOf :: (Eq a) => [a] -> [a] -> Bool
ghci> "foo" `isPrefixOf` "foobar"
ghci> [1,2] `isPrefixOf` []

The isInfixOf function indicates whether its left argument is a sublist of its right:

ghci> :module +Data.List
ghci> [2,6] `isInfixOf` [3,1,4,1,5,9,2,6,5,3,5,8,9,7,9]
ghci> "funk" `isInfixOf` "sonic youth"

The operation of isSuffixOf shouldn’t need any explanation:

ghci> :module +Data.List
ghci> ".c" `isSuffixOf` "crashme.c"

Working with Several Lists at Once

The zip function takes two lists and zips them into a single list of pairs. The resulting list is the same length as the shorter of the two inputs:

ghci> :type zip
zip :: [a] -> [b] -> [(a, b)]
ghci> zip [12,72,93] "zippity"

More useful is zipWith, which takes two lists and applies a function to each pair of elements, generating a list that is the same length as the shorter of the two:

ghci> :type zipWith
zipWith :: (a -> b -> c) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c]
ghci> zipWith (+) [1,2,3] [4,5,6]

Haskell’s type system makes it an interesting challenge to write functions that take variable numbers of arguments.[8] So if we want to zip three lists together, we call zip3 or zipWith3, and so on, up to zip7 and zipWith7.

Special String-Handling Functions

We’ve already encountered the standard lines function and its standard counterpart unlines in the sectionWarming Up: Portably Splitting Lines of Text. Notice that unlines always places a newline on the end of its result:

ghci> lines "foo\nbar"
ghci> unlines ["foo", "bar"]

The words function splits an input string on any whitespace. Its counterpart, unwords, uses a single space to join a list of words:

ghci> words "the  \r  quick \t  brown\n\n\nfox"
ghci> unwords ["jumps", "over", "the", "lazy", "dog"]
"jumps over the lazy dog"

[8] Unfortunately, we do not have room to address that challenge in this book.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, interactive tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required