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Reducing Process Costs with Lean, Six Sigma, and Value Engineering Techniques by Jon M. Quigley, Kim H. Pries

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CHAPTER 7 – Classical Techniques
I. Rubric for the FAST Approach
Criteria Level 1 (50–59%) Level 2 (60–69%) Level 3 (70–79%) Level 4 (80–
100%)
Analyze concepts
Analysis of
concepts results in
conclusions with
limited factual
support
Analysis of
concepts results
in conclusions
with some factual
support
Analysis of
concepts results
in conclusions
with considerable
factual support
Analysis of
concepts results in
conclusions with
thorough factual
support
Analyze concepts
providing details
Analysis of
concepts provides
limited details
Analysis of
concepts provides
some details
Analysis of
concepts provides
considerable
details
Analysis of
concepts provides
thorough details
Analyze given
scenario
Analysis of given
scenario provides
limited insight
Analysis of given
scenario provides
some insight
Analysis of given
scenario provides
considerable
insight
Analysis of given
scenario provides
thorough insight
Assess research
information
Assessment of
research informa-
tion demonstrates
limited use of
criteria
Assessment of
research informa-
tion demonstrates
some use of
criteria
Assessment of
research informa-
tion demonstrates
considerable use
of criteria
Assessment of
research informa-
tion demonstrates
thorough use of
criteria
Communicate in-
formation about
four types of vital
signs
Communicates
information about
the supporting
functions with
limited clarity
Communicates
information about
the supporting
functions with
some clarity
Communicates
information about
the supporting
functions with
considerable
clarity
Communicates
information about
the supporting
functions with a
high degree of
clarity
Communicate
information ac-
curately
Communicates
information with
limited accuracy
Communicates
information with
some accuracy
Communicates
information with
considerable ac-
curacy
Communicates
information with
a high level of
accuracy
Communicate
information
clearly
Communicates
information with
limited clarity
Communicates
information with
some clarity
Communicates
information with
considerable
clarity
Communicates
information with
a high degree of
clarity
Communicate
information ef-
fectively
Communicates
information with
limited effective-
ness
Communicates
information with
some effective-
ness
Communicates
information with
considerable ef-
fectiveness
Communicates
information with
a high degree of
effectiveness
Communicate in-
formation using
an appropriate
format
Demonstrates
limited ability
to communicate
information using
an appropriate
format
Demonstrates
some ability to
communicate
information using
an appropriate
format
Demonstrates
considerable abili-
ty to communicate
information using
an appropriate
format
Demonstrates a
high level of abil-
ity to communicate
information using
an appropriate
format
132 Reducing Process Costs with Lean, Six Sigma, and Value Engineering Techniques
Communicate
information us-
ing appropriate
style
Demonstrates
limited ability
to communicate
information using
appropriate style
Demonstrates
some ability to
communicate
information using
appropriate style
Demonstrates
considerable abil-
ity to communi-
cate information
using appropriate
style
Demonstrates a
high level of abil-
ity to communi-
cate information
using appropriate
style
Communicate
information us-
ing technology
Communicates
information dem-
onstrating limited
use of technology
Communicates
information dem-
onstrating some
use of technology
Communicates
information
demonstrating
considerable use
of technology
Communicates
information dem-
onstrating expert
use of technology
II. Questions to Ponder
What value analysis/value engineering methods preceded Six Sigma, Lean Six
Sigma, and lean manufacturing?
After studying this approach, does it seem useful?
What kind of tool can we use to build these diagrams?
Do we have to use the diagrammatic format?
How many styles of diagram exist for the functional analysis system technique
(FAST)?
Where can I nd more information on FAST?
When did this kind of value analysis/value engineering commence?
Is the language usage in this kind of approach useful? Does it really reduce
ambiguity or just make things worse?
How far can we go to reduce ambiguity and why?
How do we calculate the dollar (euro) value of the cost savings?
III. Cost Improvement Scenario
A. Situation
This particular company used screws to hold their housing together. Screws are
difcult on the manufacturing line because they require a special driver as well as a
feeder for the screws and we always have the risk of stripping the threads when we
tap out the plastic.
B. Objective
Attempt to eliminate as many screws as possible and use clamping as a substitute.
C. Action
The engineers reviewed the design and worked with the customer, since the

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