EpilogueArtistry, Choice, and Leadership

The wheel is come full circle.

—William Shakespeare, King Lear

In 1983 we published Modern Approaches to Understanding and Managing Organizations. We laid out for the first time the four frames as a way to better understand organizations and leadership. Much has happened in the years since. Prominent corporations have disappeared; new ones have arisen to take their place. We wrote the first book using pen on paper and a primitive early personal computer—in a time before cell phones, the Internet, or female CEOs in Fortune 500 companies.

Since then, we have gained more confidence in our framework. Thousands of readers and students throughout the world have told us how much our ideas helped them master ...

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