Remote Sensing and Image Processing in Mineralogy

Book description

Remote Sensing and Image Processing in Mineralogy reveals the critical tools required to comprehend the latest technology surrounding the remote sensing imaging of mineralogy, oil and gas explorations. It particularly focusses on multispectral, hyperspectral and microwave radar, as the foremost sources to understand, analyze and apply concepts in the field of mineralogy. Filling the gap between modern physics quantum theory and image processing applications of remote sensing imaging of geological features, mineralogy, oil and gas explorations, this reference is packed with technical details associated with the potentiality of multispectral, hyperspectral and synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The book also includes key methods needed to extract the value-added information necessary, such as lineaments, gold and copper minings. This book also reveals novel speculation of quantum spectral mineral signature identifications, named as quantized Marghany’s mineral spectral or Marghany Quantum Spectral Algorithms for Mineral identifications (MQSA).

Rounding out with practical simulations of 4-D open-pit mining identification and monitoring using the hologram radar interferometry technique, this book brings an effective new source of technology and applications for today’s minerology and petroleum engineers.

Key Features
• Helps develop new algorithms for retrieving mineral mining potential zones in remote sensing data.
• Solves specific problems surrounding the spectral signature libraries of different minerals in multispectral and hyperspectral data.
• Includes over 200 equations that illustrate how to follow examples in the book.

Table of contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication
  5. Preface
  6. Table of Contents
  7. 1 Principles of Mineralogy, Oil and Gas
    1. 1.1 What is a Mineral?
    2. 1.2 What is the Relationship between Atoms, Elements, Minerals and Rocks?
    3. 1.3 Atom Structure
    4. 1.4 Minerals in Periodic Table
    5. 1.5 Chemical Bonding
    6. 1.6 Valence and Charge
    7. 1.7 Ionic Bonding
    8. 1.8 Covalent Bonding
    9. 1.9 Natural Crystallization of Minerals
      1. 1.9.1 Isometric
      2. 1.9.2 Hexagonal
      3. 1.9.3 Tetragonal
      4. 1.9.4 Orthorhombic
      5. 1.9.5 Monoclinic
      6. 1.9.6 Triclinic
      7. 1.9.7 Trigonal or Rhombohedral
    10. 1.10 Occurrence and Formation
    11. 1.11 How are Minerals Categorized?
      1. 1.11.1 Silicate Minerals
      2. 1.11.2 The Dark Ferromagnesian Silicates
      3. 1.11.3 Pyroxene Family
      4. 1.11.4 Amphibole Minerals
      5. 1.11.5 Sheet Silicates
      6. 1.11.6 Framework Silicates
    12. 1.12 Non-Silicate Minerals
      1. 1.12.1 Carbonate
      2. 1.12.2 Oxides
      3. 1.12.3 Halides
      4. 1.12.4 Sulfides
      5. 1.12.5 Phosphate Minerals
      6. 1.12.6 Native Element Minerals
    13. 1.13 Oil and Gas Formation
    14. References
  8. 2 Quantization of Minerals and their Interactions with Remote Sensing Photons
    1. 2.1 Quantization in the Atom
      1. 2.1.1 Principal Quantum Number
      2. 2.1.2 Angular Momentum Quantum
      3. 2.1.3 Magnetic Quantum Number
      4. 2.1.4 Spin Quantum Number
    2. 2.2 Quantum Mechanics of Bonding
    3. 2.3 Quantum Mechanics of Mineral Atomics
    4. 2.4 Energy Variations Based on Schrödinger Wavefunction
    5. 2.5 What is Quantum Influences?
    6. 2.6 Quantization of Minerals from Point View of Wavefunction
    7. 2.7 Antiferromagnetic Spin-frustrated Layers of Minerals
    8. 2.8 General Quantization of Mineral Remote Sensing Imagines
      1. 2.8.1 Plank Quanta
      2. 2.8.2 Requantization of Photoelectric Effect
      3. 2.8.3 The Uncertainty Principle
      4. 2.8.4 Photovoltaic Effect
      5. 2.8.5 De Broglie’s Wavelength
    9. 2.9 Quantization of Blackbody Radiation
    10. 2.10 Quantization of Spectral Signature
    11. 2.11 How can We Establish a New Definition of Remote Sensing for Mineral Identification?
    12. References
  9. 3 Quantum Computing of Image Processing
    1. 3.1 What is Meant by Quantum Computing?
    2. 3.2 What is Meant by Quantization?
    3. 3.3 What are Quantum Computers and How do they Work?
      1. 3.3.1 Qubits and Superposition
      2. 3.3.2 Quantum Registers
      3. 3.3.3 Quantum Gates
        1. 3.3.3.1 NOT Gate
        2. 3.3.3.2 Controlled-NOT Gate
        3. 3.3.3.3 Hadamard Gate
      4. 3.3.4 Entanglement
    4. 3.4 Quantum Image Processing
    5. 3.5 Flexible Representation for Quantum Images
    6. 3.6 Fast Geometric Transformations on FRQI Quantum Images
    7. 3.7 Efficient Colour Transformations on FRQI Quantum Image
    8. 3.8 Multi-Channel Representation for Quantum Images
    9. 3.9 Novel Enhanced Quantum Image Representation (NEQR)
    10. References
  10. 4 Quantum Spectral Libraries of Minerals in Optical Remote Sensing Data
    1. 4.1 How do Spectral Libraries Build Up?
    2. 4.2 Jablonski Energy Diagram
    3. 4.3 Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy
    4. 4.4 Spectral Regions Relevant to Mineralogy
    5. 4.5 Entanglement by Absorption
    6. 4.6 How Does Entanglement Form Spectral Libraries?
    7. 4.7 How Does Quantum Teleportation Establish the Spectral Libraries?
    8. 4.8 Modeling of Quantum Mineral Spectral Libraries
    9. 4.9 Image Storage
    10. 4.10 Tested Remote Sensing Data
    11. 4.11 Example of Reflectance Spectra
    12. References
  11. 5 Quantum Multispectral and Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imaging of Alteration Minerals
    1. 5.1 What is an Alteration?
      1. 5.1.1 Potassic Alteration
      2. 5.1.2 Propylitic Alteration
      3. 5.1.3 Phyllic (Sericitic) Alteration
      4. 5.1.4 Argillic Alteration
      5. 5.1.5 Silicification
      6. 5.1.6 Carbonatization and Greisenization
    2. 5.2 Multispectral and Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Sensors
    3. 5.3 Mineral Exploration from Space
      1. 5.3.1 Multispectral Satellite Sensors
      2. 5.3.2 Hyperspectral Satellite Sensors
    4. 5.4 Why Does The Spectral Analyst Tool Work Properly in Some Cases and Not At All in Others?
    5. 5.5 Quantization of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Data
    6. 5.6 Spectral Reflectance Quantum Image Formation (SRQIF)
    7. 5.7 Marghany Quantum Spectral Algorithms for Mineral Identifications (MQSA)
    8. 5.8 Selected Investigation Area for MQSA Application
    9. 5.9 MQSA Application of Different Minerals in Landsat and ASTER Images
    10. 5.10 Why Marghany Quantum Spectral Algorithms (MQSA) Identify Accurate Quantum Mineral Images?
    11. References
  12. 6 Evolving Quantum Image Processing Tool for Lineament Automatic Detection in Optical Remote Sensing Satellite Data
    1. 6.1 What is Meant by Lineament?
    2. 6.2 What is the Magic of Lineament?
    3. 6.3 What are the Sorts of Lineaments?
    4. 6.4 Satellite Remote Sensing and Image Processing for Lineament Features’ Detection
    5. 6.5 How do Multispectral Remote Sensing Data Identify the Lineaments?
    6. 6.6 Problems for Geological Features’ Extraction from Remote Sensing Data
    7. 6.7 Can Digital Elevation Model be Utilized in Lineament Delineation?
    8. 6.8 What is the Main Question?
    9. 6.9 The Fuzzy B-splines Algorithm for Digital Elevation Model Reconstruction
    10. 6.10 Entanglement of Fuzzy Quantum for DEM Reconstruction
    11. 6.11 Quantum Edge Detection Algorithm for Lineament Mapping
    12. References
  13. 7 Quantum Support Vector Machine in Retrieving Clay Mineral Saturation in Multispectral Sentinel-2 Satellite Data
    1. 7.1 Salinity, Soil and Geological Minerals
    2. 7.2 Mineral Soil Classifications
    3. 7.3 Remote Sensing of Mineral Soils
    4. 7.4 Can Marshlands be Indicator for Mineral Occurrences?
    5. 7.5 How to Compute Cation Exchange Capacity in Laboratory?
    6. 7.7 How to Retrieve Clay Potential Percentage in Remote Sensing Data?
    7. 7.8 Quantized Marghany Clay Saturation Algorithm in Al-Hawizeh Marsh
    8. 7.9 Support Vector Machines
    9. 7.10 Quantum Support Vector Machines
    10. 7.11 Why Does QSVM Entangle Quantized Marghany's Clay Saturation Algorithm?
    11. References
  14. 8 Automatic Detection of Oil Seeps in Synthetic Aperture Radar Using Quantum Immune Fast Spectral Clustering
    1. 8.1 What are Oil Seeps?
    2. 8.2 Behaviour of Oil and Gas Jets and Plumes Below the Sea Water Surface
    3. 8.3 Onshore Seep Occurrences
    4. 8.4 Offshore Seep Occurrences
    5. 8.5 Sort of Seeps
    6. 8.6 How Does Remote Sensing Technology Identify Natural Oil and Gas Seeps?
    7. 8.7 Why Do Microwave Data Have Advantages on Top of Optical Data in Seep Monitoring?
    8. 8.8 Offshore Seep Imagine in SAR Data
    9. 8.9 What are the Physical Seep Parameters Identified in SAR Data?
    10. 8.10 SAR Polarization Signals
    11. 8.11 Quantum Fully-polarized SAR Image Processing
    12. 8.12 Quantum Immune Fast Spectral Clustering
    13. 8.13 Quantum Immune Operation
    14. 8.14 Spectral Embedding
    15. 8.15 Automatic Detection of Oil Seep in Full Polarimetric SAR
    16. 8.16 Applications of QIFSC to Other Satellite Polarimetric SAR Sensors
    17. 8.17 Why Can QIFSC Precisely Cluster Different Kinds of Oil Seep?
    18. References
  15. 9 Quantum Interferometry Radar for Oil and Gas Explorations
    1. 9.1 What is Reservoir Geomechanics?
    2. 9.2 What is the Role of Reservoir Geomechanics in Oil and Gas Explorations?
    3. 9.3 Physics of Interferometry
    4. 9.4 What is Synthetic Aperture Interferometry?
    5. 9.5 Interferograms
    6. 9.6 Phase Unwrapping
    7. 9.7 How to Understand SAR Interferograms?
    8. 9.8 Quantum of Differential-InSAR (QD-InSAR)
    9. 9.9 Quantum Hopfield Algorithm for DInSAR Phase Unwrapping
    10. 9.10 Application of Quantum DInSAR Hopfield Algorithm in Land Deformation Owing to Oil and Gas Explorations
    11. References
  16. 10 Quantum Machine Learning Algorithm for Iron, Gold, and Copper Detection in Optical Remote Sensing Data
    1. 10.1 How Copper and Gold Form in the Earth?
    2. 10.2 How Copper and Gold are Mined?
    3. 10.3 What are the Characteristics of Copper and Gold?
    4. 10.4 Remote Sensing for Copper and Gold Identifications
    5. 10.5 Conventional Image Processing Techniques for Gold, Iron, and Copper Explorations
      1. 10.5.1 Preprocessing
      2. 10.5.2 Post Image Processing
        1. 10.5.2.1 False Colour Composite
        2. 10.5.2.2 Band Ratio
        3. 10.5.2.3 Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
        4. 10.5.2.4 Noise Fraction (MNF)
        5. 10.5.2.5 Spectral Unmixing in n-dimensional Spectral Feature Space
    6. 10.6 Quantum Machine Learning
    7. 10.7 Classifier Architecture
    8. 10.8 Classifier Training as a Supervised Learning Task
    9. 10.9 Training Score and Classifier Bias
    10. 10.10 Gold Mining Simulation Using Quantum Machine Learning
    11. 10.11 Quantum Artificial Neural Network (QANN) for Gold Exploration
    12. 10.12 QANN for Copper Mining Potential Zone
    13. 10.13 Why Quantum Machine Learning can be Used for Mineral Exploration?
    14. References
  17. 11 Four-Dimensional Hologram Interferometry for Automatic Detection of Copper Mineralization Using Terrasar-X Satellite Data
    1. 11.1 What is the Real Age of Copper?
    2. 11.2 Occurrences of Copper
    3. 11.3 Conventional Methods for Copper Extraction
    4. 11.4 What is the Major Challenge with Optical Remote Sensing and Microwave Radar Data?
    5. 11.5 Underground Mines and Open Pits Identification and Monitoring by InSAR
    6. 11.6 InSAR Processing Challenges
    7. 11.7 Why Do We Still Need to Identify Well-known Open-Pit Mining?
    8. 11.8 What are the Advantages of TanDEM Data?
    9. 11.9 What is Meant by Four-Dimensional and Why?
    10. 11.10 Does N-dimensional Exist?
    11. 11.11 What is Hologram Interferometry?
    12. 11.12 Marghany’s 4-D Hologram Interferometry Theory for Copper Mineralization
    13. 11.13 Marghany’ 4-D Phase Unwrapping Algorithm
    14. 11.14 Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm
      1. 11.14.1 Optimization of 4-D Phase Unwrapping
      2. 11.14.2 Optimization of Open-pit Mining Geometry Deformation
    15. 11.15 Hamming Graph for 4-D Formation from Quantum Hologram Interferometry
    16. 11.16 4D Hologram Interferometry of Open-Pit Mining
    17. 11.17 Can Relativity Theory Explain 4-D Quantum Geometry Reconstruction?
    18. References
  18. Index
  19. About the Author

Product information

  • Title: Remote Sensing and Image Processing in Mineralogy
  • Author(s): Maged Marghany
  • Release date: March 2022
  • Publisher(s): CRC Press
  • ISBN: 9781000548761