Renewable Energy

Book description

This three volume compendium begins with a review of our past dependence on fossil fuels as our primary energy source and our future needs to change how our energy is produced and utilized due to diminishing resources and environmental impact.

The first volume presents the major options for carbon-free energy including hydroelectric and solar energy for both thermal applications and the production of electricity, wind energy, and biofuels as a replacement in the transportation industry. Yet, all of these options will not work on a large scale without proper energy storage, which is the topic of the second and third volumes.

The second volume reviews the possible methods of storing energy in the form of mechanical or thermal energy. Mechanical methods include those that make use of gravitational potential energy and the storage of energy by compressing air or by storing as rotational energy in a flywheel. Sensible heat storage is discussed in terms of its applications to residential heating, community-based storage, solar ponds, and thermal storage for grid-integrated energy systems.

The third volume considers various methods of energy storage that make use of electrochemical reactions, electric and magnetic fields, and chemical reactions. It outlines multiple types of batteries as well as supercapacitors, pseudo-capacitors, and hybrid capacitors. It ends with techniques in chemical energy storage and the use of hydrogen, methane, methanol, and ammonia as energy carriers.

Table of contents

  1. Preface
  2. Energy and Society
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Our Past and Present Energy Use
    3. 1.3 Our Energy Sources (1/2)
    4. 1.3 Our Energy Sources (2/2)
    5. 1.4 Our Future Energy Needs (1/2)
    6. 1.4 Our Future Energy Needs (2/2)
  3. The Need for Renewable Energy
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Resource Limitations
      1. 2.2.1 Reserves-to-Production Ratios
      2. 2.2.2 Hubbert Theory (1/2)
      3. 2.2.2 Hubbert Theory (2/2)
    3. 2.3 Environmental Consequences of Our Energy Use
      1. 2.3.1 Pollution
      2. 2.3.2 The Greenhouse Effect
      3. 2.3.3 Evidence for Global Warming
      4. 2.3.4 Consequences of Global Warming
    4. 2.4 Global Warming Mitigation Strategies
  4. Renewable Energy Sources
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Hydroelectric Energy (1/2)
    3. 3.2 Hydroelectric Energy (2/2)
    4. 3.3 Wind Energy (1/3)
    5. 3.3 Wind Energy (2/3)
    6. 3.3 Wind Energy (3/3)
    7. 3.4 Solar Thermal Energy
      1. 3.4.1 Flat Plate Collectors
      2. 3.4.2 Evacuated Tube Collectors
      3. 3.4.3 Transpired Solar Collectors
      4. 3.4.4 Concentrating Solar Collectors
    8. 3.5 Solar Thermal Electricity
    9. 3.6 Photovoltaics (1/2)
    10. 3.6 Photovoltaics (2/2)
    11. 3.7 Geothermal Energy (1/2)
    12. 3.7 Geothermal Energy (2/2)
    13. 3.8 Biofuels
      1. 3.8.1 Wood
      2. 3.8.2 Municipal Solid Waste
      3. 3.8.3 Ethanol
      4. 3.8.4 Biodiesel
      5. 3.8.5 Biogas
    14. 3.9 Summary
      1. 3.9.1 Cost
      2. 3.9.2 Carbon Footprint
      3. 3.9.3 Risk
  5. The Need for Energy Storage
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Distribution of Energy Use in Time
      1. 4.2.1 Electricity
      2. 4.2.2 Thermal Energy
    3. 4.3 Temporal Variations in Renewable Energy
      1. 4.3.1 Hydroelectric Energy
      2. 4.3.2 Wind Energy
      3. 4.3.3 Solar Energy
      4. 4.3.4 Geothermal Energy
      5. 4.3.5 Summary
    4. 4.4 Remote and Emergency Energy Systems
    5. 4.5 Portable Energy Systems
    6. 4.6 Summary
  6. Bibliography (1/2)
  7. Bibliography (2/2)
    1. Preface
    2. Energy and Society
      1. 1.1 Introduction
      2. 1.2 Our Past and Present Energy Use
        1. 1.2.1 Pump-back Hydroelectric Storage
        2. 1.2.2 Seawater-based Pumped Hydroelectric Storage
        3. 1.2.3 Sub-surface Pumped Hydroelectric Storage
        4. 1.2.4 The Muuga Seawater Pumped Hydroelectric Storage Project
        5. 1.2.5 Underwater Reservoirs
        6. 1.2.6 Gravity Power Storage
        7. 1.2.7 World Use of Pumped Hydroelectric Storage
      3. 1.3 Gravitational Potential of Solid Masses
      4. 1.4 Compressed Air Energy Storage (1/2)
      5. 1.4 Compressed Air Energy Storage (2/2)
        1. 1.4.1 Physics of Compressed Air Energy Storage
        2. 1.4.2 Locations for Compressed Air Energy Storage
        3. 1.4.3 World Use of Compressed Air Energy Storage
      6. 1.5 Combined Pumped Hydroelectric-Compressed Air Energy Storage
      7. 1.6 Flywheels (1/4)
      8. 1.6 Flywheels (2/4)
      9. 1.6 Flywheels (3/4)
      10. 1.6 Flywheels (4/4)
        1. 1.6.1 The Physics of Flywheels
        2. 1.6.2 Flywheel Design Criteria
        3. 1.6.3 Applications of Flywheels for Energy Storage
    3. Thermal Energy Storage Methods
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 Sensible Heat Energy Storage
        1. 2.2.1 Sensible Heat Energy Storage Materials
        2. 2.2.2 Residential Heat Storage
        3. 2.2.3 Community-based Heat Storage
        4. 2.2.4 Solar Ponds
        5. 2.2.5 Grid Integrated Systems
      3. 2.3 Latent Heat Energy Storage (1/2)
      4. 2.3 Latent Heat Energy Storage (2/2)
        1. 2.3.1 Residential Latent Heat Energy Storage
        2. 2.3.2 Latent Heat Energy Storage in Ice
        3. 2.3.3 Latent Heat Energy Storage in Liquid Air
      5. 2.4 Thermochemical Reactions
    4. Bibliography (1/2)
    5. Bibliography (2/2)
    6. Preface
    7. Batteries
      1. 1.1 Introduction
      2. 1.2 Types of Batteries
        1. 1.2.1 Battery Chemistry
        2. 1.2.2 Battery Sizes
        3. 2.2.3 Battery Cost
      3. 1.3 How Batteries Work (1/2)
      4. 1.3 How Batteries Work (2/2)
      5. 1.4 Other Battery Technologies (1/2)
      6. 1.4 Other Battery Technologies (2/2)
        1. 1.4.1 Sodium Batteries
        2. 1.4.2 Vanadium Flow Batteries
      7. 1.5 Battery Applications (1/4)
      8. 1.5 Battery Applications (2/4)
      9. 1.5 Battery Applications (3/4)
      10. 1.5 Battery Applications (4/4)
        1. 1.5.1 Vehicles
        2. 1.5.2 Off-grid and Emergency Power Systems
        3. 1.5.3 Grid Energy Storage
    8. Supercapacitors and Superconductors
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 Capacitors and Supercapacitors
        1. 2.2.1 Energy Storage in a Capacitor
        2. 2.2.2 Supercapacitors
        3. 2.2.3 Pseudocapacitors and Hybrid Capacitors
        4. 2.2.4 Applications of Supercapacitors
      3. 2.3 Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (1/3)
      4. 2.3 Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (2/3)
      5. 2.3 Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (3/3)
        1. 2.3.1 Energy Storage Capacity of an Inductor
        2. 2.3.2 Superconductivity
        3. 2.3.3 Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage
    9. Chemical Energy Storage Methods
      1. 3.1 Introduction
      2. 3.2 Hydrogen
        1. 3.2.1 Properties of Hydrogen
        2. 3.2.2 Hydrogen Production Methods
        3. 3.2.3 Hydrogen Storage Methods
        4. 3.2.4 Fuel Cell Technology
        5. 3.2.5 Applications of Hydrogen Energy Storage
        6. 3.2.6 Efficiency of Hydrogen Energy Storage
      3. 3.3 Methane
      4. 3.4 Methanol
      5. 3.5 Ammonia (1/2)
      6. 3.5 Ammonia (2/2)
        1. 3.5.1 Properties of Ammonia
        2. 3.5.2 Ammonia Internal Combustion Engines
        3. 3.5.3 Hydrogen Storage in Ammonia
    10. Bibliography
    11. Author's Biography

Product information

  • Title: Renewable Energy
  • Author(s): Richard A. Dunlap
  • Release date: February 2020
  • Publisher(s): Morgan & Claypool Publishers
  • ISBN: 9781681737980