Circular Economy refers to a closed-loop model of an economy where waste is eliminated and product are sold, consumed, collected and then reused, remade into new products, returned as nutrients to the environment or incorporated into global energy flows.

Cradle to Cradle (also referred to as C2C) models human industry on nature's processes viewing materials as nutrients circulating in healthy, safe metabolisms and separates these into technical and biological nutrients.

Deconstruction describes a process of selective disassembly of a building at the end of its life to recover materials and components or systems for potential reuse or recycling. It is an approach to building removal that can extract resources so they can be used for high value future uses.

Design for deconstruction (or disassembly) describes how a building is designed to be readily taken apart at the end of its useful life so that the components can have a second use. To facilitate this, a design team needs to consider how the major systems can be deconstructed during renovations and end-of-life.

Design for durability considers extending the life of a building and its individual components. This can mean choosing long-life components but also creating adaptability in a building as a means to extend its service life and its potential for repurposing.

Diversion (waste diversion, landfill diversion) is the process of diverting waste from landfills or incinerators through various means such as reuse, ...

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